withprophet faceBook withprophet twitter withprophet pinterest withprophet new

The Liberation of Mecca… the truth arrived and the idols of the time of ignorance were destroyed

The Liberation of Mecca… the truth arrived and the idols of the time of ignorance were destroyed

The meaning of the name: the Liberation of Mecca

This campaign is considered one of the most important and influential Islamic liberations; due to this campaign, the disbelieving leaders of Quraish and other tribes were guided and submitted to Islam. This was the result of the faith which moved their hearts, not obedience moved by swords and bloodshed.

The time and location of the Liberation of Mecca

This campaign was launched on 10th of Ramadan in the 8th Hijri year, in the city of Mecca in the heart of the Arabian Peninsula. Mecca was the cradle of the light of the Message given to the Prophet (peace be upon him) from the time he was first sent as a prophet, during his persecution and his emigration from it to Medinah, and when he returned to it as a victor to liberate it.

Leadership in the Liberation of Mecca

The Prophet (peace be upon him)  was the leader in this campaign, leading ten thousand of his Muslim companions. He (peace be upon him) himself led the first division of fighters. The other divisions were led by Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam (from the north), Khalid ibn Al-Waleed (from the south), Abu Ubaidah ibn Al-Jarrah (from the northwest), and Qais ibn Saada ibn Ubadah (from the southwest) [related by Muslim, in the Chapter on Jihad, 1780].

The Muslims prepared for the campaign as the leaders of the disbelieving tribes, led by Quraysh and Banu Ad-Dail ibn Bakr, were lying in wait to ambush them [Ibn Hesham, 70/4].

Reasons for the campaign (Liberation of Mecca)

The Liberation of Mecca was one of a series of the Prophet’s expeditions, calling people to Islam and removing the barriers that prevent them from the Lord of the worlds. This was following the order in the ayah, {Fight them until there is no more persecution and Allah’s way is established instead. If they cease, there should be no enmity towards any but wrongdoers} [Surah Al-Baqarah: 193].

However, this campaign aimed, in particular, to discipline Quraish, after they broke the Hudabayah treaty by supporting their allies Banu Bakr when they attacked the tribe of Khuza’ah, one of the Muslim allies, although the truce (of Hudaybiyah) had been laid down for a period of ten years [Ibn Hesham, 57/4]. 

The events of the Liberation of Mecca

The liberation of Mecca was one of the greatest events in which of Allah’s scared house was magnified, and one of the greatest victories of the believers who had left their homes in a state of weakness. Because of this campaign, people entered Allah’s religion in multitudes. We can follow the events of this campaign as follows:

Breaking the Hudaybiyah treaty

In the eighth year after the Prophet’s Hijrah, a man from the tribe of Banu Bakr attacked a man from Banu Khuza’ah. During the times of ignorance, there were wars between the two tribes. On this occasion, fighting reached the sacred precinct in Mecca, and Quraysh took part in the conflict by supplying its allies Banu Bakr with weapons.

Amr Al-Khuza’ah told the Prophet (peace be upon him) what had happened in the form of a poem:

They claim that I am not able to call anyone (to Islam), and they are humiliated and less in number (than us)

And they made us stay up all night Al-Wateer, praying, and fought us while we are bowing and prostrating.

Narrators of the Prophet’s biography have said that the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied to him, saying, “We will support you, Oh Amr,” and he looked towards the sky, saying, “This cloud announces the victory of Banu Kaab.” This was the spark that started the Liberation of Mecca [Zayd Al-Maad (Provision for the Hereafter), Ibn Al-Qayyoum, 3/396, reported from Ibn Hesham]. (Banu Kaab is a subclan of Banu Khuza’ah).

Abu Sufyan…An unsuccessful attempt at reconciliation

The Prophet (peace be upon him)  had set clear choices in front of the disbelievers: pay the blood money for the men of Banu Khuza’ah who were killed, renounce the treaty with Banu Bakr, or announce that the Hudaybayah treaty had become void. Quraysh replied by accepting the third choice!

Abu Sufyan quickly realized the extent of the dilemma, so he rushed to Medinah in an attempt to ask to renew the treaty, but the chance of such renewal had passed. Abu Bakr, Umar and Ali refused to intercede for him with the Prophet (peace be upon him). Moreover, the Prophet’s daughter did not allow Abu Sufyan to sit on the Prophet’s bedding, as she considered that Abu Sufyan was impure (i.e. a polytheist) [Zaad Al-Maad, 3/397]. Consequently, Abu Sufyan regretfully returned to his people, not knowing what to do! 

The Prophet’s well-organized plan for the Liberation of Mecca

The Prophet (peace be upon him) laid down a well-organized plan to liberate Mecca, acting on Allah’s saying, {Arm yourselves against them with all the firepower and cavalry you can muster, to terrify the enemies of Allah and your enemies} [Surah Al-Anfal: 60].

He ordered the Muslims to prepare for the campaign, and also ordered his family to prepare for the expedition. The Prophet (peace be upon him) was careful to keep the matter hidden from those in Mecca in order to take them by surprise. Even Aisha did not disclose anything to her father in order for him to hear about the campaign from the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself [Ibn Hesham: 4/39 and 56].

Moreover, there was a plan to hide his real intention from the enemy, as was the usually habit of the Prophet (peace be upon him) for the different campaigns. The Prophet (peace be upon him) sent an expedition to Najd and other locations, in order to hide his real intentions from Quraish [Ibn Hesham: 7/8].

The Prophet (peace be upon him) left Medinah in the year of the Liberation of Mecca while he and the Muslims were fasting. They continued until they reached Kadeed (a place near Mecca). The Prophet (peace be upon him) called for some drink in a cup, when he was on his riding animal, and he drank in front of the people. This was to inform them that he had broken his fast and for them to break their fast like him. He said, <You will meet your enemy. If you break your fast you will be stronger, so break your fast> [related by Muslim, 1120].

Haatib’s error…and Prophet Muhammed forgiving him

When the Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) had gathered the army that was leaving for Mecca, the Companion Haatib ibn Abu Balta’a wrote a message informing and warning his family in Quraish about the expedition. He then gave it to one of Banu Abdul-Muttalib’s slaves called Sarah. She placed the message in her hair plaits. It is said that the message said, “Oh Quraiysh, Prophet Muhammed is coming with an army like the night, moving like a torrent. Even if he comes to you alone, Allah will make him victorious and fulfill what He had promised him. Therefore, prepare yourselves. Peace to you.”

However, Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) what Haatib had done, so Prophet Muhammed sent Ali and Az-Zuabyr (may Allah be pleased with them) to get the message, saying:

<Go out until you reach Rawdah Khakh, where there is a lady who has a message, travelling towards Mecca. Take the message from her.>

Haatib was in a shameful situation. Umar ibn Al-Khattab asked to cut off his head, considering him a hypocrite. Khaatib ibn Balata’ah (may Allah be pleased with him) begged for forgiveness from Prophet Muhammed, saying that he had not sent the message because he disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, but to protect his relatives from any violent actions of Quraysh!

The pardon of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) used to extend to include the sins of those who had previously carried out noble acts. Therefore Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, <You do not know if Allah may have looked at those who participated in the Battle of Badr and said, ‘Do what you want, I have forgiven you’> [related by Al-Bukhari, 3007].

It has been reported that this event was the reason for the following ayah being revealed, {Oh you who have believed! do not take My enemy and your enemy as friends, showing love for them when they have rejected the truth that has come to you} [Surah Al-Mumtahinah: 1] [Fath Al-Bari, 8/420].

Fear strikes Quraysh  

Prophet Muhammed’s army, consisting of about ten thousand fighters, went to Mecca. Most of them were from the Ansar (the Helpers) and many of them from the tribes of Muzainah, Juhaynah, Aslam and Banu Kaab. This was as well as the Muhajirun (the Immigrants). It is also said that they had two thousand and eighty horsemen with them [Ibn Hesham, 4/60].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him)’s plan was successful, as Quraysh did not notice anything until the Muslim army was near Mecca. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) had left Abu Ruham Al-Ghafari in Medinah to look after affairs there.

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) passed by the area of Mar Ath-Thihran, he ordered his companions to light a fire. This was to terrify Quraysh [Tabaqat by Ibn Saad, 2/135].

Al-Abbas and Prophet Muhammed’s cousins embraced Islam

The authors of the Prophet’s biography state that Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet Muhammed’s uncle, left Mecca immigrating for Allah, bringing his family and his son with him. They met Prophet Muhammed at Al-Jahfah and announced their Islam. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was very happy about him embracing Islam, as Al-Abbas had supported and helped him in the past, although he still belonged to the religion of Quraysh at that time [The Beginning and the End by Ibn Kathir, chapter on Al-Abbas embracing Islam].

A number of historians of the Prophet’s biography stated that Al-Abbas had embraced Islam early in the call, but he did not announce his Islam until the year of the Liberation of Mecca [At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra by Ibn Saad].

Prophet Muhammed’s cousins, Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith ibn Abdul-Muttalib Al-Hashemi and Abdullah ibn Abu Umaiyah Al-Makhzumi, also left Quraysh. They met Prophet Muhammed and asked to enter in upon him. Um Salamah talked to Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) about them. However, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was angry about how they had hurt the Muslims. He (peace be upon him) said, <I have no need for them.> When they heard about this, one of them said, “By Allah, he will allow us to see him or I will take this son’s hand (his son was with him) and we will travel throughout the land until we die from thirst and hunger.” When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) heard what they had said, he felt sorry for them and so let them enter, and they announced their Islam [The Collection of Authentic Hadiths by Al-Albani].

Abu Sufyan embraces Islam

Quraysh sent a delegation of three men, one of whom was Abu Sufyan, to gather news. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) caught the three men when he learnt about them.

Abu Sufyan had come due to the invitation of Prophet Muhammed’s uncle Al-Abbas, asking for forgiveness and safety. (This was an attempt by Al-Abbas to prevent an unfavourable bloody conflict). He found a welcome, and Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) asked him, surprised by his stance, <Is it not time that you truly understand that there is no god but Allah?> And <And I am the Messenger of Allah?> Abu Sufyan agreed with the first statement but had problems with the second statement. However, Allah guided his heart to eventually testify to the truth.

Al-Abbas asked Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) to give Abu Sufyan a special favour which would restore his prestige and pride, so Prophet Muhammed agreed.

He (peace be upon him) said, <Yes. Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan will be safe, and whoever closes his door on himself will be safe, and whoever enters the mosque at Mecca will be safe> [related by Al-Bukhari, 4280], so the people entered their houses and the mosque [related by Abu Dawoud, 2/257].

It was a wise act of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) to ask Sufyan to wait <until he could see the Muslims> (that is, their mobilization and their strength). Consequently, he saw the green Muslim battalions coming one after another, and he was surprised by their large number and their equipment, which was unusual for the Arabs at that time [related by Al-Bukhari, 4280].

When Abu Sufyan said to Al-Abbas, “By Allah, the sovereignty of your nephew today is very great.” Al-Abbas replied, “It is prophethood,” (that is, no ruler will be able to gather a multitude like the multitude of believers, with none of them seeking power or authority).

Abu Sufyan left to go to Quraysh, advising them by saying, “This is Muhammed. He has come to you with something you will never be able to resist.” And he told them to close their doors on themselves!! [Al-Matalib Al-`Aliya by Ibn Hajar, 4/418].

The Muslim battalions prepare for the liberation

At Dhi Tuwa, an area in Mecca which is today called Az-Zahir, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) divided the army into battalions. Each battalion represented a particular tribe. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was with his companions of the Muhajirun and Ansar in their battalion. On the right was Khalid ibn Al-Waleed, and on the left was Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam. The infantry and the soldiers who had no shields were led by Abu Ubaydah.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) ordered Khalid to enter Mecca from the lower side, and to place his banner next to the first houses he reached [related by Muslim, 1780].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) addressed the Ansar the day before the Liberation of Mecca, saying, <‘Oh Ansar, have you seen the riffraff of Quraysh?’ They replied, ‘Yes.’ Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, ‘Be ready. If you meet them tomorrow you will reap great bounties from them,’ and he hid his hand by placing his right hand on his left hand, and said, ‘Your appointment is As-Safa’> [related by Muslims, 1780].

The orders were clear. Whoever met the Muslims on Mount As-Safa in Mecca will experience fierce confrontation. This firmness was necessary to achieve the liberation of Mecca.

The clashes and fighting of Khalid

Every leader was able to control his area peacefully, except Khalid ibn Al-Waleed. On that day, an extremist group of Qurayshi horsemen in the south of Mecca had gathered with their leader Safwan ibn Umayyah and Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl. For this attack, they choice the “Khandamah” straits, surrounding the hills overlooking Mecca.  

Ibn Al-Waleed (may Allah be pleased with him) tried to convince the group of Qurayshi men to embrace Islam and to refrain from attacking them, but they refused. Clashes and crossfire started. Just over ten of them were killed (the more likely number being 12 men), but other reports state 28 men. Khalid managed to defeat them. [The Campaign of the Liberation of Mecca, 1/124, adapted from Ibn Hesham].

Ar-Raash Al-Huthali told his wife, when she blamed him for fleeing: [The Liberation of Mecca and the Manifest Victory by Zahi’ah Al-Dujani, p. 74].

If you saw the day of the Khandamah, when Safwan and Ikrimah flew.

Abu Yazeed stood up like a weakling, confronting the Muslims’ swords

Every forearm and skull was cut and hit, so they did not hear anything but cheers of the victors.

Two of Khalid ibn Al-Waleed’s horsemen were killed on that day: Hubaysh ibn Al-Ash’ar and Kurzu ibn Jabir Al-Fihri (may Allah be pleased with them) [related by Al-Bukhari, 4280].

Then Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) had sent an order to stop fighting, and to only fight those who fought them [Fath Al-Bari, 8/10].

Blood is spilt on the day of mercy

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) heard that blood had been spilt, he asked Khalid ibn Waleed, <‘Why did you fight and I had prohibited you from fighting?’ Khalid replied, ‘They started the attack and approached us with their weapons.’ So Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, ‘The predestination of Allah is good’> [Fath Al-Bari, 8/10].

The secrecy which Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) maintained concerning the movement of the Muslims in liberating Mecca, the tolerance of the Prophet Muhammed, and the sanctity of the house of Allah in Mecca had a direct impact on stopping the Muslims’ swords from fighting. For this reason, when Saad ibn Ubadah said, “Oh Abu Sufyan! Today is a day of conflict, the day you cannot seek sanctuary at the Kaabah,” Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) became annoyed, and he said to Abu Sufyan and whoever came to him complaining about this, <Saad has lied. This is the day Allah will raise the Kaaba in honour, and the day the Kaaba will be clothed> [related by Al-Bukhari, 4280].

The Prophet’s biography states that Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) allowed Khaza’ah to take revenge from Banu Bakr for an hour during the day, until the time of Asr on the day of the Liberation of Mecca. Then he ordered that they stop fighting [related in Musnad Ahmed, 11/264].

The horses of Allah enter Mecca

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) entered Mecca on the day of the Liberation of Mecca with his chin almost touching his riding animal, out of reverence and humility of Allah [Fath Al-Bari, 8/18].

When all the fighters had gathered in the area of Al-Hajjun, where Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) had camped, he ordered them to move towards the sacred mosque and remove the idols that were inside the noble Kaaba and around it.

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) entered, the first act he performed was Tawaf (circumambulation) of the Kaaba. He then destroyed the idols himself [related by Al-Bukhai, 4287].

He (peace be upon him) greeted the corner of the Kaaba, touching it with his stick (a special stick which had a special head at the end, like a sceptre), and he said, “Allahu Akbar”. And the Muslims also said, “Allahu Akbar”, after him. They kept saying, “Allahu Akbar”, until Mecca shook with people saying, “Allahu Akbar”. So Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) indicated to them to stop. All this time, the disbelievers on the mountains were looking on.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) performed Tawaf of the sacred house, with Mohammed ibn Muslamah holding the reins of Prophet Muhammed’s camel, circumambulating seven times around the house and greeting the black stone every round with his stick. That was on Monday, 10th Ramadan. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) did not put on the Ihram clothes for Umrah.

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) finished performing the Tawaf, he got off his riding animal and went to the Muqam of Ibraheem, where he prayed two rakats (units) of prayer. Next he went to the spring of Zamzam, and said, <Had it not been that (I feared) the people would take over Banu Abdul-Muttalib’s task (of giving water to the pilgrims, due to them copying me), we would have taken a bucket of it.> Therefore, Al-Abbas took a bucket of Zamzam water for him, and he drank from it and performed ablution with it. The Muslims started to perform ablution with the water that dropped from Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) when he was washing, pouring this water on their faces. The disbelievers were surprised by what they saw. They said, “We have never seen any king who is respected to this extent” [The History of the Islamic Nation by Mohammed Al-Khudri, 187].

The miracle of the destruction of the idols

During the Tawaf, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) held a bow with which he knocked down 360 idols around the Kaaba, saying, {Say, “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Falsehood is always bound to vanish”} [Surah Al-Israa: 81], and the idols fell on their faces.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) had ordered Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), while Mecca was being liberated, to go to the Kaaba and demolish the pictures and statues, so Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) did not enter the Kaaba until he had erased them [related by Abu Dawoud, 4156]. However, Umar did not demolish the statue of Ibrahim and Ismael.

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) had finished the Tawaf, he called Uthman ibn Talha. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) took the keys of the Kaaba from him, ordered that the Kaaba be opened, and went inside. There, he saw some pictures and statues, and a statue of Ibrahim and Ismael, as though they were using diving arrows (it was an idol that the ignorant used to worship). Therefore, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, <May Allah harm them. By Allah, they never used diving arrows (i.e. they followed the monotheistic religion).>

When he (peace be upon him) had removed the polytheistic pictures and the statues of the idols, Prophet Muhammed ordered that the door of the Kaaba be closed on him, while Usama and Bilal were still with him. He then faced the wall in front of the door, with 3 arms lengths between him and the wall, and stood to pray. Next, he (peace be upon him) moved inside the Kaaba, said, “Allahu Akbar”, in each section and proclaimed the Oneness of Allah, and then opened the door [related by Al-Bukhari, 4287].

The Abyssinian, Bilal, calls the Athan from the Kaaba

After the Kaaba had been purified from the idols, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) ordered Bilal ibn Rabah to call the athan. He called the athan (call to prayer) from the top of the Kaaba, which annoyed some of the Qurayshi leaders who still had some remnants of the prejudice of the time of Jahiliyyah, remembering that they used to be Bilal’s masters [The Prophet’s Biography in the Light of the Quran and Sunnah by Mohammed Abu Shahbah, vol. 2, p. 450].

(Bilal used to be one of their slaves before Islam, but today Allah made his position clear, with him standing above the Kaaba calling the athan, and the Quraysh sitting submissively, as they waited for either forgiveness or death.)

From this date onwards, this call continued to be repeated with the testimony of faith that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah and that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah, calling the people to prosperity and to the best action, which is the Prayer.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) asked for Uthman ibn Talha, and when he came, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said to him, <‘These are your keys. Today is the day of righteousness and keeping agreements.’ He continued, ‘Take them, Banu Shaybah, to be eternally among your offspring. No one will take them from you but an oppressor’> [Fath Al-Bari by Ibn Hajar, vol. 8, p. 15] (they were the guardians of the Kaaba, so Prophet Muhammed did not take this from them).

Allah revealed the following ayahs about this event, {Allah commands you to return to their owners the things you hold on trust and, when you judge between people, to judge with justice} [Surah Al-Nisaa: 58].

The sermons of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) during the liberation of Mecca…and the fate of Quraysh

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) left the Kaaba, Quraysh had filled the mosque, standing in rows waiting to see what the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) would do with them. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) stood next to the doorway, and Quraysh were below him. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Allahu Akbar,” three times, and then said, <There is no god that deserves to be worshipped but Allah. He has no partners. He kept His promise, gave victory to His slave, and He, alone, defeated the confederates.>

There were many people in the mosque. Their hearts nearly left their chests in fear, but the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), who came as a mercy to the worlds and was forgiving, let them start a new page.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gave a number of sermons after the liberation of Mecca which are recorded in many authentic narrations that are mutawatir (narrations from so many narrators that they could not be considered a lie).


The first sermon was the sermon on the day of the liberation of Mecca while he was standing at the doorway of the Kaaba. In this sermon, he explained that there is blood money for anyone who was killed accidentally, and he also cancelled the privileges of the times of ignorance [Nadra An-Naeem, vol. 1, p. 372]. He said, <‘Every claim of privilege during the times of Jahiliyyah, whether that of blood or property, is under my feet (abolished), except that of giving water to the Hajj pilgrims and the custody of the Kaaba. He said, ‘The blood money for anyone who is slain, even semi-deliberately due to (recklessly and irresponsibly) hitting with a whip or club, is 100 camels’> [related by Abu Dawoud, 4547].

He then recited Allah’s saying, {Mankind! We created you from a male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other. The noblest among you in Allah´s sight is the one who fears Allah the most. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware} [Surah Al-Hujarat: 13].


Some scholars of the Prophet’s biography said that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) addressed Quraysh, saying, <‘Oh Quraysh, What do you think I will do with you?’ They replied, ‘Good. You are a generous brother and the son of a generous brother.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, ‘I will say to you the same as Yusuf said to his brothers: There will be no blame on you today. Go, you are free’> [Fath Al-Bari, vol. 8, p. 18].


Annulment of Alliances: In his second sermon, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, <There is no alliance (of the un-islamic alliances of the pre-Islamic period) in Islam, but any alliance which was established in the pre-Islamic period (for good), Islam strengthens this alliance (if the parties become believers). Believers are all like one hand against their enemies. The weakest one may give protection (to a disbeliever, and all believers have to accept this protection), and the one far away (in battle) has to return the spoils to all the believers (i.e. all Muslims have to be dealt with equally).’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) explained this by saying, ‘A Muslim is not killed for a disbeliever (as a retaliation penalty). The blood-money paid for a disbeliever is half of the blood-money paid for a believer. There will be no shouting in races to spur on the horse and no use of a spare horse (i.e. no one of the competitors are allowed an advantage to unfairly win over the other), and be just in all (your dealings)’> [The beginning of the hadith is related by Muslim, 3539].


Mecca is a sanctified site, and there is no more immigration (from Mecca): In the third sermon, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) announced that Mecca was a sanctified area, and that hunting in Mecca as well as uprooting its shrubs and cutting its trees, picking up things that had fallen, and fighting in it was prohibited. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said that Allah had made fighting in it legal for only him for a few hours at the time of the liberation of Mecca. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, <There is no immigration after the liberation of Mecca, but only jihad and sincere intentions. When you are asked to set out (for the cause of Islam), you should set out> [related by Al-Bukhari, 2825].


Blood money: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) explained in the fourth sermon that the guardian of the one who was killed can choose to accept the blood money or for the penalty of just retribution to be implemented [related by Al-Bukhari, 6880].

The Qurayshi chiefs testify to the sincerity of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)

Some of the scholars of the Prophet’s biography stated that after the liberation of Mecca, Abu Bakr As-Saddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) came with his father, Abu Quhafah, leading him as he had lost his sight. When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saw him, he said to Abu Bakr, as a sign of politeness, <You should have left the old man in his house for me to go to him.> Abu Bakr was sitting with the the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), who then wiped the chest of Abu Bakr’s father and said, <Embrace Islam,> so he embraced Islam [Al-Isabah (The Correct Approach) by Ibn Hajar, vol. 2, p. 461].

It is also narrated that Al-Harith ibn Hisham said, when Bilal was calling the Athan to Prayer above the Kaaba, “Truly, by Allah, if I knew he (the Messenger of Allah) was telling the truth, I would follow him.” So Abu Sufyan said, “What would you say if even the pebbles of the earth tell the Messenger of Allah what is being said!” The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) actually came to them, and said, <I know what you said,> and he told them exactly what they were talking about. Consequently, Al-Harith and ‘Itab said, “We bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah!”

Moreover, Fudalah ibn ‘Umair embraced Islam. He was the same one who intended to kill the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) when he (the Messenger of Allah) was performing Tawwaf around the Kaaba in the year of the liberation of Mecca. When he approached the Messenger of Allah, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, <‘What plan were you intending to carry out’ He replied, ‘Nothing. I was just remembering Allah.’ So the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) laughed and said, ‘Ask Allah for forgiveness (as the Messenger of Allah knew what plan he wanted to implement).’ Then he placed his hand on his chest and so his heart became at rest. Later, Fudalah used to say, ‘By Allah, by the time he lifted his hand from my chest, there was none of Allah’s creation that I loved more than him.’>

Fudalah wrote a poem to avoid a girl who wanted to talk to him:

If you had seen Muhammed and his followers, and the liberation of Mecca, the day when the idols were broken;

You would have seen the religion of Allah clearly shine among us, and polytheism hide its dark face.

Those whose blood was spilt…..and the great forgiveness of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)

When the liberation of Mecca was complete, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) announced the security of all the people of Mecca, except fifteen people who he ordered to be killed, according to the most correct narration. This was due to the greatness of their crimes. However, most of them then embraced Islam and asked for security, so only four of them were killed [Muhammed the Messenger of Allah by Mohammed Rasheed, p. 334].

The ones whose blood was ordered to be spilt were:

Abdullah ibn Abu Sarh: he changed the revelation which the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had dictated to him and satirized the Messenger of Allah. He repented of his actions after the liberation of Mecca and embraced Islam. Uthman interceded for him with the Messenger of Allah.

Abdullah ibn Khatal: He satirized the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and apostatized from Islam. He had taken an oath that he would stop the Messenger of Allah from entering Mecca by force. He went out to fight the Messenger of Allah, but then fled and tied himself to the outside curtain of the Kaaba, when he saw the Muslims. The death penalty was carried out on him and one of his female slaves, but the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forgave the other female slave.

Akrimah ibn Abu Jahl: He used to be an enemy of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), and his wife, Um Hakeem, asked the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) to give him protection, so he agreed to her request. After that, he was one of the most virtuous Companions. He died as a martyr in the Battle of Yarmuk.

Huwayrith ibn Nuqaydh: He harmed the Muslims a lot and took part in goading the camel the Prophet’s daughter was riding. The death sentence was carried out on him.

Muqis ibn Sabaha: He apostatized from Islam and killed a Muslim who had killed his brother by mistake. The death sentence was carried out on him.

Habbar ibn Aswad: He harmed the Muslims. He also confronted Zaynab (may Allah be pleased with her), the Prophet’s daughter, when she was migrating to Medinah, and goaded her camel, making Zaynab fall on a rock and lose her unborn baby. From that day, Zaynab remained ill until she died. After the liberation of Mecca, he returned to Mecca, after first fleeing from it, and admitted the wrong he had done, so the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forgave him!

Kaab ibn Zuhayr: He was a Qurayshi poet who used to ridicule the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), but later he embraced Islam and wrote the poem “Bānat Suʿād (Su'ād Has Departed)”.

The poem says:

Truly, the Messenger is a light that shines and one of the special swords of Allah, unsheathed.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gave him a gift of a robe, which the Muslim sultans kept wearing on their Eids (festivals).

Al-Harith ibn Hesham and Zaheer ibn Omaiyah: they were among those who fought Islam and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). Um Hani bint Abu Talib, Ali’s sister, gave them protection. Consequently, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) accepted her protection of them [related by Al-Bukhari, 3171 (in which the full names are not mentioned)]. They both embraced Islam and became strong in faith. However, Habayrah, her husband, did not embrace Islam. He resided in Mecca until he died a disbeliever.

Safwan ibn Omaiyah: His cousin interceded with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) on his behalf, so the Messenger of Allah agreed to his request, although he had been an enemy of Islam for many years. His aunt gave him protection to safely enter Mecca, and he stayed there four months. He did not embrace Islam until after the Battle of Hunayn, when the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gave him land filled with sheep, saying, “It, and what is inside it, is for you.” Safwan said, “Kings do not make such gifts so willingly.” He embraced Islam and increased in faith.

Wahshi ibn Harb: he is the one who killed Hamzah (may Allah be pleased with him) during the Battle of Uhud. After the liberation of Mecca, he flew. However, they followed him. He bore testimony to the truth of Islam, and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forgave him. Wahshi killed Musaylimah the Liar in the apostasy wars with the same spear he had used to kill Hamzah. He said about this, “I hope this (killing) is (a recompense) for that (killing of Hamzah, i.e. an atonement for it).”

Sarah, the female slave of Banu Al-Muttalib: She used to sing lyrics ridiculing the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). Despite this, she went to ask for charity from the Messenger of Allah, and he gave her some. She repented for her songs, and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gave her protection. She embraced Islam and her faith became sound.

Hind bint Utbah: She mutilated the the Messenger of Allah’s uncle, Hamzah, on the day of the Battle of Uhud and chewed his liver. When Mecca was liberated, she hid in the house of Abu Sufyan, her husband. She later embraced Islam and was present during the conflict with the Romans in Yarmouk Battle, when she encouraged and motivated the Muslims to fight.

Mr. Muir: The total number of people that were actually killed amounted to only four. Abu Lahab’s sons, Utbah and Mu’attib, disappeared and then embraced Islam. Suhail ibn Amr, whose son was a Muslim, also disappeared, and he later embraced Islam at Al-Jairanah [Muhammed the Messenger of Allah, by Mohammed Rasheed].

The people of Mecca…pledging allegiance to Allah’s religion

A few hours after the liberation of Mecca, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) started to forgive the people, which was another reason for the new Muslims to love this great religion. This situation represented the fulfillment of Allah’s saying, {When Allah's help comes and victory is attained. And (O Prophet,) you see that the people are entering into Allah's Religion in crowds. Then glorify your Lord with His praise, and pray for His forgiveness. Indeed, He is ever inclined to accept repentance} [Surah An-Nasr: 1–3].

Pledging allegiance: the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) started by pledging allegiance with the men, and then the women, for them to listen and obey Allah and His Messenger. Majisha ibn Masoud and his brother Mujalid came to take the oath to perform hijrah (immigrate for the sake of Allah). The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) told them, < ‘The Muhajireen (immigrants before the liberation of Mecca) have taken all the reward of hijrah.’ He said, ‘What shall we make an oath of allegiance about?’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, ‘Take an oath of allegiance on Islam, Iman and Jihad’> [related by Al-Bukhari, 4305].

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) finished taking the allegiance from the men, he took allegiance from the women, including Hind bint Utbah who was covering herself so it would not be clear who she was. They took an oath of allegiance that they would not take any partners with Allah, and would not steal, commit adultery, kill their children, or make up accusations about what they have done with their hands or legs, or disobey when I order to do good. When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, <‘Do not steal,’ Hind said, ‘Oh Messenger of Allah, Abu Sufyan is miserly; he does not give me enough for myself or my children. Is there any problem if I take from his money without him knowing?’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, ‘Take from his money what is reasonable and enough for you and your children’> [related by Muslim, 1714].

And when the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, <‘Do not commit adultery.’ Hind said, ‘Does a free woman commit adultery?’ When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) recognized her, he said, ‘Are you Hind bint Utbah?’ She replied, ‘Yes. Forgive me for what I did, may Allah forgive you.’>

It has been related that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to only take verbal pledges of allegiance from the women. He (peace be upon him) said, <Truly, I do not shake hands with women. Rather my word to a hundred women is like my word to one woman (all of them are the same)> [related by Nisaa, 4192]. 

The Liberation of Mecca…by force or peace

The majority of scholars, including Malik, Abu Haneefah and Ahmed, view that the Liberation of Mecca was first by force, because the Muslims had weapons and there was a possibility of using them, although the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) wished to avoid bloodshed and forgive those who did not fight him.

They cited different proofs for this, including the following hadith, <Whoever enters Abu Sufyan’s house is safe, and whoever puts away his weapons is safe.> If they entered Mecca in peace, there would be no need to say such statements.

Others replied to this view by saying that the liberation was peaceful. Among those who held this view is Iman Shafa’i. This was because the Muslims agreed to enter the city in peace on the condition that the Quraiysh put down their weapons and did not fight. A group of different clans of Quraysh, as mentioned in the hadith related by Muslim, did not keep these conditions. Consequently, the Muslims replied to their actions.

A country can be liberated by force in Islam, and after liberating, the leader can do good to the people of the country by leaving them to run their affairs. Most countries were liberated through fighting and were then left as they were, without dividing them as booty. This was during the caliphate of Umar and Othman (may Allah be pleased with them).

As well as this, Mecca was a special city as it is the place of specific rituals, Hajj and Umrah, and a place of worship for all creation. Moreover, Allah made the city a safe and sacred sanctuary, for those who live near it and those who come from far away.  

In general, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to concentrate on gaining the hearts of those who did not embrace Islam. For this reason, he offered the disbelievers, when liberating their city during the liberation of Mecca, both security and peace [Nawawi’s Explanation, vol. 12, p. 130, quoted by Abu Shuhabah, p. 461].

The Messenger (peace be upon him) left Mecca after liberating it

When the Ansar noticed how pleased the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was with the liberation of Mecca, his happiness with the Kaaba and the sacred mosque, and how he prayed and thanked Allah at Mount Safa for this great blessing represented in the liberation of Mecca, they started to fear that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) would remain there and not return with them to Medinah. They said, “He misses his clan, and the Muhajareen and the new Muslims keep trying, by all means, to keep him among them.” Consequently, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said to An-Ansar, <No, I am the slave and Messenger of Allah. I immigrated to you in the cause of Allah. I will live with you and will die with you.> So they went towards him, crying while saying, ‘By Allah, we did not say this except that we longed to have Allah and His Messenger with us.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) replied, ‘Truly, Allah and His Messenger believe you and give you an excuse for what you said’> [related by Muslim, 1780].

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) stayed in Mecca for 19 days, and he shortened the prayer and broke the fast during this time.

In this time, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sent some of his companions to call others to Islam, and to destroy the idols, statues and graven images [Fath Al-Bari, volume 2, p449].

The results of the liberation of Mecca

The call to Allah was able to spread more: The liberation of Mecca marked the start of the spread of Islam to all the corners of the world, after it used to be limited to the Arabian peninsula.


The opening of the hearts: Everyone learnt about the truth of this religion. The clans began to be in agreement, after they had always been against each other, so they became at peace with each other, and then they believed in the religion. Consequently, crowds of people entered Allah’s religion [The Seal of the Prophets by Abu Zahrah, p588].


Tawheed (Oneness of Allah): The liberation of Meeca purified this blessed area from polytheism, making it a direction of pure tawheed after the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had destroyed the idols and ordered his companions to follow his example in destroying the symbols of polytheism.


Victory of the Muslims: The liberation of Mecca announced the victory of the oppressed and abolished discrimination, placing value only on the extent the person fears Allah.

The pardon of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), and Quraish embracing Islam: The liberation of Mecca was a means of removing the Arab tribes fear of Quraish. These Arab tribes waited before announcing their Islam until Allah had made His the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) clear to these tribes by making him victorious over Quraish. The tribes used to say, “Wait; if they are victorious over Quraish, then he is a true Prophet.”

Rituals of Hajj: The believers now were allowed to enter the sacred mosque and perform Tawaf. Moreover, they gained the honour of of being the ones, from among the Arabs, who protect and serve the Kaaba.  

Rulings in the Sharia’h: Many rulings in the Sharia’h became clear during the Liberation of Mecca. These rulings concerned the Imamate for the prayer, how long a person can shorten the prayer while travelling, and the Sunnah of praying Duha (morning prayer). Other rulilngs that became clear involve the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) accepting the protection women had offered, as he accepted Um Hani’s pledge to protect her brother-in-laws, the marriage contract with a polytheist when his wife embraces Islam, the paternity of the new born being assigned to the mother’s legal husband, the right of the wife to be given what is necessary for her needs. Moreover, the prohibition of selling alcohol, dead animals and idols was highlighted along with the prohibition of interceding to reduce a legal penalty, the prohibition of killing a woman if she is not taking part in the conflict against the Muslims, and the permissibility of entering Mecca without being in the state of Ihram (ritual purity to perform pilgrimage) [Nadra An-Na’eem, Vol. 1, id.].

Lessons learnt from the Liberation of Mecca

Victory only comes from Allah. the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to keep praying to Allah, at all times, to be able to liberate Mecca. His prayers included him saying, <Oh Allah, take their hearing and sight so that they only see at the last moment, and only hear us when they do not expect us> [Dala’al (Proof of the Prophecy of the Prophet) by Al-Baihaqi, vol. 5, p11].

The obligation of replying firmly to those who break any treaty with the Muslims (Quraish and Banu Bakr breaking the Hudaibayah treaty is an example of this).

Islam ignores the errors of some of the sinners if their intentions are good (Hatib bin Abu Balata committed high treason by revealing the secret of the Mecca campaign, but the Messenger of Allah pardoned him as Hatib had done this for fear of his family being harmed at the time).

The necessity of keeping the movements of the Muslims a secret. The ingenuity of the Messenger of Allah’s plans based on faith and taking the appropriate means (the Messenger of Allah divided the Muslim battalions so they surrounded Mecca, he sent scouters to learn what was happening in the city, used the element of surprise, and mobilized a very large group of men from the different tribes. This is as well as other means to increase the strength of the Muslim campaign. All of this indicates the Messenger of Allah’s prowess as a military leader).  

The obligation of obeying the leader and doing Jihad with the intention of making Allah’s words the uppermost.

The legitimacy of breaking the fast during Ramadan for those taking part in Jihad in order for them to be strong on the battlefield.

The legitimacy of placing fear into the hearts of the enemy and the obligation of always taking steps in facing the enemies’ machinations (lighting fires).

Assigning to the people the position suitable for them. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) made the house of Abu Sufyan, the leader of disbelief before he embraced Islam and the master of his people, a place of safety for those of the disbelievers who had surrendered.

Islam is the religion of peace; the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered that blood should not be spilt during the liberation of Mecca, and he (peace be upon him) also blamed Khalid ibn Al-Waleed for killing some disbelievers on that day.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was very forgiving with those who used to harm the Muslims in the past, despite the severity of their harm and crime. Some examples of his pardon were clear as, among all the disbelievers who had been sentenced with the death penalty, only four of them were actually killed. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) did not punish the one who attacked his (the Messenger of Allah’s) daughter, after the culprit embraced Islam, even though the man’s attack had eventually resulted in her death. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) also did not punish the one who had chewed Hamzah ibn Abu Talib’s liver on the battlefield along with other culprits who had attacked him before they embraced Islam, after their regret for their actions became clear with their repentance.  

Islam is the religion of mercy. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to announce, <I am the Prophet of mercy. I am the Prophet of war (to raise Allah’s words).>

There is no immigration (from Mecca) after the liberation of Mecca, after Islam had become strong.

The blood of the disbelievers is inviolable and cannot be shed without right. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) paid the blood money of those who the Muslims had killed.

The believer should be humble and fear Allah, both at the time of gaining great victory and at the time of setbacks, being thankful to Allah, his guardian, for the blessing (the Messenger of Allah entered Mecca on his riding animal fearing Allah and remembering his Lord. He did not enter like a conqueror).

The sanctity of Mecca, where it is prohibited to kill and cut down plants.

The establishment of the doctrine of tawheed (Oneness of Allah) and the destruction of the idols; the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered that images be erased and the idols be destroyed.

Islam is a religion that upholds justice; the the Messenger of Allah’s sermons on the day of the liberation of Mecca called for the demolishment of the vengeance killings of the times of ignorance: all of a tribe waging a war after one of them was killed by someone from another tribe. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) returned the key of the Kaaba to Banu Shaybah, who previously had the key.