withprophet faceBook withprophet twitter withprophet pinterest

The battle of Uhud…a divine test for the hearts (3A.H.)

The battle of Uhud…a divine test for the hearts (3A.H.)

The reason it was called the battle of Uhud

Uhud (the battle was called after a mountain on one of the southern slopes of Medinah).

When and where was the battle of Uhud?

The battle happened on Saturday, 7th Shawwal in the third year of Hijrah, i.e. one year after the battle of Badr. It took place on the outskirts of Medinah, the city which the Muslims immigrated to, fleeing with their religion from the severe assaults of  the disbelieving leaders of Quraish in Mecca.

Reasons for the battle of Uhud

Quraish wanted to take revenge against the Muslims after they experienced defeat and shame in the battle of Badr in which many leaders of disbelief were killed, as well as the subsequent expeditions and campaigns to stop the trade route moving from and to Mecca with many goods. Quraish also wanted to restore their status among the Arab tribes, both politically and economically. But most of all, they wanted to eliminate the Islamic call of the Oneness of Allah, which destroyed  the influence of the Arabs, their interests and their statues and idols, and established a nation of truth based on piety and

righteousness.

Who were the leaders in the battle of Uhud?

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was the leader of the Muslim army in this battle. Abu Sufyan ibn Badr was the leader of the tribe of Quraish.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) divided the Muslims into battalions of Muhajareen (the Immigrants), Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj. Musab ibn Umair was the flag-bearer for the first battalion, Usaid ibn Hudair was the flag-bearer for Al-Aws, and Al-Habab ibn Al-Munthir was the flag-bearer for the third battalion. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) positioned Al-Munthir ibn Amr as a leader of the right wing of the army, Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam as a leader of the left, and a group of brave Muslims at the front.

As for Quraish, Khalid ibn Al-Waleed was positioned on the right wing of the arrny as well as being a leader over the calvary, Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl was on the left, Safwan ibn Omaiyyah was positioned over the infantry, Abdullah ibn Rabi’ah was placed over the archers, and the flag was given to Banu Abdul-Dar, according to historical accounts written about the positioning in the battles waged by Quraish.

The strength of the equipment used in the battle

The Muslim army of Medinah consisted of 1000 warriors. They also had one hundred shields and fifty horsemen. However, the hypocrite Abdullah ibn Ubai ibn Salul devised a plot to make one third of the army  return to Medinah before the Muslims met the disbelievers on the battlefield.

As for the enemies, 3000 fighters from the disbelievers of Quraish, its allies and some Abyssinians gathered in Mecca. They had 3000 camels to carry their weapons, a cavalry of  200 horses, and 700 shields for protection.

 

The events of the battle of Uhud

A) Mobilization and preparation for the battle

 

A number of women from Quraish went to Abu Sufyan asking for 50,000 dinars to prepare the army to attack the Muslims. Quraish agreed, and they sent delegates to the Arab tribes to incite them to fight. They also allowed men and some women to volunteer to motivate the fighters to attack.

The Messenger of Allah’s uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, was among the leaders of Quraish when the women came asking the disbelievers of Quraish to fight. Al-Abbas used to keep an eye out for the Muslims concerning any events in Mecca, after  the Muslims had immigrated to Medinah, and he used to help the Muslims who had remained in Mecca. Therefore, he quickly sent news of the possible attack to the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) replied by relating a dream he had, saying, The interpretation of the cows being slaughtered was that some of his men would be killed, and the groove at the pointed tip of his sword meant that a member of his house would be hurt. And this is what actually happened in Uhud.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) continued to seek out news of the disbelievers from his Companions. One of these Companions was Al-Habab ibn Al-Munthir, who came with news of the number of fighters in the disbelievers’ army. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) replied to this news, saying,

 

B) Starting to prepare for the battle

 

As the time for the battle approached, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gathered his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) and consulted them about staying in Medinah and encamping there, or leaving to meet the disbelievers. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) thought it would be better to stay in Medinah. He (peace be upon him) said, but the majority of the Muslims wanted to leave to meet the enemy.  Therefore, the Messenger of Allah decided to follow their wishes instead of his point of view. He (peace be upon him) put on his armour, and refused to take it off when the Companions started to blame themselves for pressing on the the Messenger of Allah (to accept their view).

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was convinced that his Companions were eager to go to meet the enemy. One of the Companions who were eager to leave was the Messenger of Allah’s uncle, Hamzah, who said, “By Him Who revealed the Holy Book to you, I will not eat until I strike them with my sword outside Medinah.”

 

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) announced a general state of emergency, equipped all the fighters, ordered that Medinah be guarded,  and choose 50 of the strongest Muslims and fighters under the leadership of Muhammed ibn Maslama to guard the Muslims’ camp. His Companions were particular in guarding the Messenger of Allah, of course.

 

The Muslim army moved between the trees and gardens at night, in order to be cautious. They met some resistance from those who were”blind in their eyes and hearts”, as the Messenger of Allah described them, eg. Marba ibn Qaythy, who threw dust at them as they ruined his garden by passing through it, but he forgot the great benefit obtained by protecting Medinah.

 

C) The treason of the leader of the hypocrites

 

This was one of the worst acts of treason in the battle of Uhud. It happened early on at Uhud. The hypocrite Abdullah ibn Ubai ibn Salul left the Muslims with one third of the army, at the garden between Medinah and Uhud, with the excuse that they did not want to fight the disbelievers and taking a stand against the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) choosing the view of the Companions to leave to  meet the enemy instead of following his wish to stay in Medinah. However, it became clear that this was just a plan to cause confusion among the rows of the Muslim army. Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Haram tried to persuade the hypocrites to return (to the Muslim camp), but they refused. Allah (Glorified is He) revealed the following about this incident, {What befell you on the day when the two hosts met was by the leave of Allah, and in order that He might mark out those who believe} [Surah Al-Imran: 166].

 

When Ibn Ubai ibn Salul and his Companions returned to Medinah, Banu Salamah and Banu Haithah intended to return, but Allah (Glorified is He) protected them, and then revealed about them, {And recall when two groups from among you were inclined to flag, although Allah was their protector} [Surah Al-Imran: 122].

 

There was a difference of opinion concerning fighting the triators. Allah (Glorified is He) says about this, {What has happened to you that you have become two parties concerning the hypocrites, even though Allah has reverted them (to disbelief), owing to the sins that they earned? Do you want to lead those to the right way whom Allah let go astray?} [Surah An-Nisa: 88].

 

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and his army reached a place called Ash-Shaykhayn, he sent the young boys, including Zaid ibn Thabit and Ibn Omar, back, but allowed Rafa ibn Khadeej and Samarah ibn Jundab to stay as they were skilled in archery and were strong. This state made clear that all the Companions wanted the honour of martyrdom: youth, the elderly, and even children.

 

When the two groups met on the battlefield, Abu Sufyan called out to the people of Yathrib that Mecca did not want to fight them if they stood aside and let them attack Muhammed. The people of Medinah replied by insulting them. At that time, the Quraishi women raised their drums and started to sing, urging the Meccan army to fight the Muslims with swords. Quraish sent Abu Amir Ar-Rahib, who had left Islam and so the Messenger of Allah had called him, “The impious one”, to try to divide the Muslim army, although his son Hanthalah was in the ranks of the Muslim army. However, his trials to call the tribe of Al-Aws, reminding them of tribal loyalty and that they were old allies of Quraish, were unsuccessful.

 

D) The day the two parties met

 

The plan of the Muslims for the battle was for the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) to be stationed so that Medinah was in front of him, the mountain of Uhud behind him, and to place 50 archers on the top of the plateau, looking over the battlefield. The leader of the archers was Abdullah ibn Jabeer. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered them to stay at the post and not leave it until he (peace be upon him) gave them permission to do so. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said to them, And he (peace be upon him) warned them about leaving their station, even if they saw the birds pecking at their companions (i.e. had been defeated and killed) or they were victors.

 

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) reminded the fighters about their status and reward, and the recompense one receives for being patient and constant during conflicts and hostilities.

 

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), the military leader, arranged the rows of the army in the form taken in congregational prayer. He (peace be upon him) placed the strongest at the front in order for them to open the way for those following them.

 

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) offered his sword to one who would promise to take it and use it properly. Consequently, Samak ibn Kharashah (Abu Dujanah) took it. Using it properly meant, “Hitting the enemy with it until it bends.” And this is what Abu Dujanah actually did. He was seen wearing a red band which indicated the death of the enemy on the battlefield. He hit the leaders with the Messenger of Allah’s sword as though it was a sharp arrow, chanting, “I am the one who my intimate friend took a promise from… when we were in under the palm-trees on the mountain side...The promise I made was to not fight at the rear...but at the front heroically with the sword of Allah and P.” He had the opportunity to hit Hind bint Utbah, wife of Abu Sufyan, who used to incite the people against the Muslims and who took a bite from the liver of Hamzah after he had been martyred, but he respected the Messenger of Allah’s sword too much to use it to hit a woman.

 

E) Sparks of the battle started to fly

 

When Talhah ibn Abu Talhah Al-Abdary, who was carrying the flag for the disbelievers, stood forward to make a mockery of the Muslims’ saying which states that their swords send the enemy hastily to the hell-fire but  make them go quickly to paradise, Ali ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) went forward and cut off  his leg. As a result, Talhah fell to the ground and his private parts became uncovered. Were it not for the appeals of his cousin to spare him, Ali would not have left him alive. Abu Talhah’s brother Uthman then took the flag, but Hamzah killed him. When the 10 flag-bearers of the disbelievers at Uhud were killed, the disbelievers became scattered. Consequently, the Muslim army started to attack them, and they were defeated and removed from their position. The slogan of the Muslims on that day was , “I seek death; I seek death”, and the slogan of the disbelievers was, “ Oh Uzza; Oh Hubal”. 

 

The Muslims were victorious at the beginning of the battle. Allah (Glorified is He) revealed about them, {Allah surely fulfilled His promise (of succour) when you were slaying them by His leave until the moment when you flagged, quarrelled among yourselves about the matter, and acted against the order of (the Prophet), after He showed you what you had intensely desired} [Surah Al-Imran: 152].

 

  1. F) Human desires stop the victory of the believers

 

The Muslim army was recording another new victory along with their victory of Badr. The women of the disbelievers had even pulled up their dresses to run away in fear, and the Muslims were pursuing the disbelievers, putting them to the sword and collecting the spoils of war, according to the report of Abdullah ibn Az-Zubayr which he related from his father.  But when the Muslims were recording another victory, the love of the wordly life started to affect many of the archers. Although their leader Abdullah warned them, they ignored him. They were 40 men who brought doom to the Muslim army. When they left their positions, the rear of the Muslims was left undefended, with only Ibn Az-Zubayr and nine Companions remaining on the mountain, determined to stay at their post…

 

Khalid ibn Al-Waleed saw this golden chance, while he was leading the disbelievers’ horses, to turn around in order to make a reboud by attacking and encircling the Muslims, after the rear of the Muslims was left undefended. When the disbelievers saw what had happened, they returned to make another attack and surround the Muslims on both sides. Consequently, the Muslims lost their initial victory and started to fight haphazardly, without any plan. Therefore, they became scattered, and even mixed so much with the disbelievers that they could not recognize each other. As a result, Al-Yaman, the father of Hudhaifah, was killed by mistake. At that time, a rumour that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had been killed started to be spread. This news made the Muslims even more bewildered, everything was confusing, and the fighting on the battlefield became more intense.

 

G) Targeting the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) …Trials and triumphs

 

The disbeliever Ibn  Qam’ia fell on Musab ibn Umair, martyring him. Musayb looked very similar to the Messenger of Allah. As a result, rumours spread that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had been killed. The Muslims became confused; some fled to Medinah and others went up to the top of the mountain. The Companions were not aware of what they were doing due to the horrors of this calamity. Others remained far from the battlefield, and others were subjected to martyrdom. Concerning this situation, Allah (Glorified is He) revealed, {Recall when you were fleeing without casting even a side glance at anyone, and the Messenger was calling out to you from the rear. Then Allah requited you by inflicting grief after grief upon you} [Surah Al-Imran: 153].

 

The Quran states that Allah forgave these different groups that fled after they heard the rumour that the Messenger of Allah had been killed. Allah (Glorified is He) says, {Surely those of them who turned their backs on the day when the two armies met (at Uhud) did so because Satan made them slip because of some of their lapses} [Surah Al-Imran: 155].

A man from the Muhajareen (Immigrants) passed by a man from the Ansar (Helpers) who was covered with blood, and asked him, “Oh so-and-so. Have you heard that Muhammed was killed?” The Ansar replied, “If Muhammed has been killed, then he must have delivered all the Message. Therefore, fight in defence of your religion!”

 

The disbelieving army rebounded, attacking the rear of the Muslims and targeting the Messenger of Allah himself. They surrounded the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) when there were only nine Companions guarding him. Consequently, all the Ansar surrounding the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) were martyred, one after each other, in their attempt to defend the Messenger of Allah. Next, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah kept fighting the disbelievers, driving them away from the Messenger of Allah, until he killed many and an arrow wounded him, which paralyzed his right hand. Saad ibn Abu Waqqas fought with Talhah. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) kept taking arrows from his quiver, saying, <Shoot, Saad. May my father and mother be sacrificed for you.> Saad fought with Abu Talhah Al-Ansari, who was on of the best archers. It is even said about him, “The voice of Abu Talhah in the army was more difficult for the disbelievers than any battalion.” He protected the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) with all his might.

 

Utbah ibn Abu Waqqas Az-Zuhry was able to reach the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and break his helmet over the Messenger of Allah’s head, which enabled the disbeliever Abdullah ibn Shihab Az-Zuhry to cut the Messenger of Allah’s forehead and Abdullah ibn Qami’ah Al-Leethy Al-Kanany to break his nose. Therefore, Abu Dujanah rushed to pounce on him and put an spear in his back. Abu Bakr surrounded the Messenger of Allah, and Nusaybah bint Kaab stood near the Messenger of Allah with a sword. She was throwing arrows, and she received many wounds. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gave her the glad tidings of paradise. Abu Ubaydah started to remove the two arrows from the Messenger of Allah’s face with his teeth. Qatadah, Thabit ibn Ad-Dahdah, Sahel ibn Haneef, Omar ibn Al-Khattab, Abdur-Rahman ibn Auf and Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam then came to help.

 

Qatadah ibn An-Naman stood with his face in front of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in order to push arrows away from the Messenger of Allah’s face.The last arrow made Qatadah’s eye fall out. Consequenlty,  he took it in his hand to the Messenger of Allah, who placed it in its socket. After that, it was the better of his two eyes.

 

Saad saw two men fighting with great might along with the Messenger of Allah. The men were dressed in white thobes, and one report states that they were the angels Michael and Gibrael (may Allah be pleased with them).

 

In the meantime, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) started to climb the mountain to join those on the mountain under the leadership of Talhah and Az-Zubayr. Hatib ibn Abu Baltah killed the disbeliever Utbah ibn Abu Waqqas who had attacked the Messenger of Allah. He was the brother of the Companion Saad ibn Abu Waqqas, but very different from him.Saad also tried to kill his brother.

When a group of disbelievers, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan and Khalid ibn Al-Waleed, climbed Uhud mountain, Omar and a group of the Muhajareen kept fighting the disbelievers until they drove them off the mountain. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked Saad to throw arrows at them from his (peace be upon him) quiver. He threw one arrow after another, killing the disbelievers. In this way, the disbelievers retreated and the Muslims ascended the mountain, being led by the Messenger of Allah.

During the battle, the Messenger of Allah killed Ubay ibn Khalaf Al-Jamahy Al-Quraishi, who had faced the Messenger of Allah for a second time, brandishing his sword. He had climbed up the mountain with a group of his followers who had hid behind stones when the disbelievers ran away.

  1. H) The certitude of the believers

The disbelievers thought the battle would never end, and they became tired because it was such a long conflict. They were also tired from the persistent strength of the Muslims. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and those with him and the Companions who later joined him retreated to one of the sides of the mountain of Uhud. They were in a state of pain and fear, and felt downcast because of what they had suffered. Therefore, Allah (Glorified is He) sent down upon them the desire to sleep, and  they began to feel safe and reassured.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) supplicated his Lord, after the fighters had formed rows behind him, praising Allah, asking for help and victory over the disbelievers, and admitting that any might and ability is only from Allah. For example, he (peace be upon him) said,

I) The martyrs of the battle of Uhud…who responded to any greetings of peace

The second stage of the battle finished with 70 martyrs from the Companions. Allah (Glorified is He) revealed about them, {And how come, when a calamity befell you, you began to ask, 'How has this come about?' even though the enemy suffered at your hands (in the Battle of Badr) double what you have suffered! Say, ‘This calamity has been brought about by yourselves.’ Surely, Allah is All-Powerful} [Surah Al-Imran: 165].

A total of 35 disbelievers were killed, according to the most correct report. Before Quraish left the battlefield, they carried out a heinous crime, mutilating the bodies of the martyrs, slashing open their stomachs, and cutting off their noses and their ears. This distressing sight was difficult for the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and his Companions, and they vowed to respond likewise to Quraish, but Allah ordered them to be patient and wait for His reward. As a result, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) prohibited his Companions from mutiliating the bodies of the enemies on the battlefields.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, while standing next to the Companions who had been mutiliated,

Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then ordered that the martyrs of Uhud be buried, and that no one should pray over them or wash them.

 

We will present the stories of these special noble fighters from the great biography of the martyrs of the battle of Uhud:

 

Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (the Lion of Allah) (may Allah be pleased with him): He participated in toppling the  flag-bearers of the disbelievers among the leaders of Banu Abd Ad-Dar. The slave Washi killed him (Hamzah), and his dead body was mutiliated. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was seen crying until his voice was clear, grieving and in sorrow over his death. Another martyr from the Ansar was found next to him (Hamzah). He had also been mutiliated. Both were given a thobe to be buried in. Safiyah chanted about Hamzah’s parting from this world, saying, “The Truth (Allah) called him, the Owner of the Throne. [Allah] Called him to paradise, alive and at ease there.”

Musab ibn Umair (may Allah be pleased with him): He was the flag-bearer for the Muhajareen in the battle. When he was martyred at Uhud by Ibn Qami’ah, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered that his head be covered, and to put a herb called Al-Ithkhir on his feet. This was because his shroud was not long enough to cover him. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then recited, {Among the believers there are those who have remained true to the covenant they made with Allah. Among those some of them have fulfilled their vow and others await the appointed time. They have not changed in the least} [Surah Al-Ahzab: 23].

 

Hanthalah ibn Abu Amir (the one washed by the angels) (may Allah be pleased with him): When covering Hanthalah with the shroud, Omar saw that his hands were wet, and that he smelt of musk. Consequently, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sent his Companions to ask Hanthalah’s family about him. They said that Hanthalah had left to fight on his wedding night, after having intimiate relations with his new wife. When an announcer called out before Fajr (Dawn) Prayer, “Come to Jihad (fighting in Allah’s cause),” Hanthalah got up so quickly that he forgot to bathe; he just rushed to the battlefield, and was then martyred. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saw the angels between the heavens and earth washing Hanthalah. Hanthalah had hit Abu Sufyan’s horse, making him fall on the ground, and he intended to kill him. However, Ibn Sha’ub came and killed Hanthalah with a spear.

Anas ibn An-Nudr (may Allah be pleased with him): During the battle of Uhud, he heard that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had been attacked and had died, so he said to his companion, “What will you do with life after the Messenger of Allah has passed away? Stand and die for the same reason the Messenger of Allah died.” He rushed into the middle of the battle, saying to Saad ibn Muadth, “Oh Saad, by Allah, I smell the scent of paradise at Uhud.” He kept fighting until he was killed. Only his sister was able to recognizine him, identifying him from his fingertips. He had more than 80 wounds from spears, swords and arrows.

Saad ibn Ar-Rabi’a (may Allah be pleased with him): The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked if he was among the alive or dead. Zaid ibn Thabit found him among the wounded, breathing his last breath. Saad told Zaid to send his salams to the Messenger of Allah. And he also told Zaid to tell the Messenger of Allah that he smelt the scent of paradise. Moreover, he said, “Oh Zaid, send my salams to my people from the Ansar, and tell them, ‘You shall not be excused in front of Allah if the Messenger of Allah is hurt and your eyes are still blinking (i.e. you are still alive).’”

Amr ibn Aj-Jamuh (may Allah be pleased with him): He was lame, so he did not have to participate in fighting in Allah’s cause, but he left to fight, with the Messenger of Allah’s permission. He was seen (in a dream) in paradise with healthy legs.

Mukhaireeq (may Allah be pleased with him): He was a Jew from the tribe of Khaybar who left his people and embraced Islam. He was killed in this battle. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said about him, In general, the Jews had a shameful attitude; they were silent about what happened to the Muslims at Uhud.

Abdullah ibn Jahsh (may Allah be pleased with him): He supplicated Allah to send him a strong, rough man in the battle of Uhud to fight him in the path of Allah and kill him, cutting off his nose and ears. He attained what he wished, along with paradise.

Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Haram (may Allah be pleased with him): He said to his son, “I do not see myself as anything but one of the first of the Messenger of Allah’s Companions to die.” After he was martyred, the Messenger of Allah went to his aunt and son when they were crying. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,

 

The martyrs of Uhud saw those martyrs who preceeded them in the battle of Badr (in their dreams) giving them the glad tidings that they would soon meet them. This happened with Ibn Haram and Khaythamah Abu Saad, who lost his son at Badr. The elderly also left to take part in the battle, like Abu Huthaifah ibn Al-Yaman and Thabit Banuqush. The first one was killed by mistake by another Muslim. His son did not take any blood-money for the death of his father. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) supplicated Allah for Wahab Al-Majany, who entered the battlefield with his nephew. Both fought with great determination, and were martyred. Furthermore, Al-Usayrim embraced Islam and died so soon after this that he was unable to pray one Prayer before being martyred. He entered paradise, regardless of not praying one Prayer.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) passed by a woman from Banu Dinar whose husband, brother and father had been killed at Uhud. When she was told this, she said, “How is the Messenger of Allah?” The Companions replied that he was well. When she saw the Messenger of Allah, she said, “Every calamity is nothing so long as you are safe.” The mother of Saad ibn Muadth, who was martyred in the battle, said the same. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gave the good tidings that those killed in the battle of Uhud were comrades in paradise, and that they would be intercessors for all their kinsfolk. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) supplicated for those who were still alive after the battle for them to be consoled.

Lessons and morals we learn from the battle of Uhud

The scholar Ibn Qayyim summarized the most important lessons from the battle, saying, “The Muslims learnt the bad effect of disobedience, due to the actions of the archers. Had it not been for these defeats, the believers would not have realized the bad consequences of sin.”

“War makes a true believer and a lying hypocrite clear. Allah (Glorified is He) say, {Allah will not let the believers stay in the state they are: He will set the wicked apart from the good} [Surah Al-Imran: 179].”

“If the Companions were not tested by being overcome, lowered and humbled, and with defeat and humiliation, they would not have attained greatness and victories. Allah (Glorified is He) says, {For sure, Allah helped you at Badr when you were utterly weak} [Surah Al-Imran: 123], and says, {…and on the day of Hunayn when your numbers made you proud, but they did you no good} [Surah Tawba: 25].”

“Allah (Glorified is He) allocated for His faithful slaves a particular level in the place of honour (paradise). They will not be able to enter this level except by experiencing difficulties and triulations.”

“Continuous good health, victory and riches make people oppressive and rely on material means, and not Allah.”

“The Messenger of Allah’s dream came true. Moreover, his wisdom as a leader and his bravery as a warrior were clear in this battle. Furthermore, his (peace be upon him) foresight and his calculation of the risks and vigilance needed, along with his mercy with the Companions and Muslims, adhering to the truth and righteousness, his patience in withstanding difficulties, and his reliance on consultation were all clear in this military operation.”

Why is it not considered that the Muslims were defeated?

The author of The Sealed Nectar, Safi Ur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri, said, “There is no doubt that the result of the battle was in favour of the Meccan army, but there are some matters that prevent us from explaining all this as a victory and conquest for the Meccans. It was clear that the Meccan army was not able to occupy the Muslims’ camp. Moreover, a large portion of the army of Medinah did not flee, although there was great confusion and general chaos. In fact, they valiantly resisted the attacks until they gathered around the leader’s headquarters, and a large number of them did not stop fighting until they had pushed the Meccan army away from their camp. Furthermore, not one of those in the army of Medinah were taken captive by the disbelievers, and the disbelievers did not take any spoils of war from the Muslims. The disbelievers were too cowardly to take up arms a third time in the battle, although the Muslims were still stationed at their posts on the battlefield. The disbelievers did not stay on the battlefield for one or two days after the battle either, as was the custom of conquerors at that time. In fact, they quickly withdrew and left the battlefield, even before the Muslims had left. Moreover, they did not try to enter Medinah to take its wealth and the children there, although Medinah was only a few steps away from the battlefield and was vunerably exposed at the time, without any soldiers at all.”

“All of this confirms that Quraish only made use of the opportunity that opened up in front of them, thereby succeeding to cause heavy losses to the Muslims. However, they failed to achieve their ultimate goal of annihiliating the Muslim army after they had encircled the Muslim headquarters. In fact, Abu Sufyan’s rush to withdraw and leave makes clear to us that he was afraid his army would be ruined and defeated. Allah (Glorified is He) says, {Do not be faint of heart in pursuing these people; if you happen to suffer harm they too are suffering just as you are, while you may hope from Allah what they cannot hope for} [Surah An-Nisa: 104].”

Ayahs (Quranic verses) in the Quran dealing Uhud

The Quran refers to all the important stages in this battle, which indicates how it tested the hearts of the believers, how it is a lesson for those who follow them, revealing the hypocrites, and gentle towards the believers, no matter how their weakness and failure happened. There are 60 ayahs in Surah Al-Imran which talk about the first stage of the battle, {(O Messenger! Remind the Muslims of the occasion) when you went forth from your home at early dawn (to the battlefield of Uhud) and placed the believers in battle arrays }. [Surah Al-Imran: 121}. And also a final comment on the battle, {Allah will not let the believers stay in the state they are: He will set the wicked apart from the good. Allah is not going to disclose to you what is hidden in the unseen (beyond perception), but He chooses from among His Messengers whom He wills (to tell such knowledge). Believe, then, in Allah and in His Messengers} [Surah Al-Imran: 179].
Moreover, there are also ayahs that reassure the believers, {Do not, then, either lose heart or grieve: for you shall surely gain the upper hand if you are truly men of faith} [Surah Al-Imran: 139]

References:

Al-Bukhari, The Book of Battles; Ibn Hesham, The Prophet’s Biography; Ibn Al-Qayyim, Zaad Al-Maad (Provisions For the Hereafter from The Guidance of the Best of Slaves); Al-Waqidy, The Book of Battles; Ibn Katheer, Chapters in the Messenger’s Biography; Al-Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar; Ali As-Salaby, The Messenger’s Battles; Mohammed Al-Ghazali, Legislation Learnt From the Prophet’s Biography.