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Prophet Muhammed’s immigration to Medinah

Prophet Muhammed’s immigration to Medinah

After Allah (Glory be to Him) made the plans of the disbelievers of Mecca unsuccessful, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was able to leave Mecca with Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him), reaching a cave in Thawr mountain (south of Mecca), so that Quraish would not be able to catch them. They stayed in the cave three nights, fearing Quraish and hoping for Allah’s help to find a way to escape.

Abdullah ibn Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) used to go to them with news about Quraish and the plans they were making against Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him). Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) tells us that Abdullah, “used to go to them every night of these three nights” [related by Al-Bukhari].

The disbelievers learned that Abu Bakr had accompanied Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him).  They looked for them everywhere. They even reached the cave where Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr were staying, standing at the entrance of the cave. At that point, Abu Bakr became very worried that the disbelievers would see them. Abu Bakr even heard the disbelievers’ feet near the cave, and saw their feet when he raised his head. Therefore he said, “Oh Prophet Muhammed, if any one of them lowered his gaze, they would see us.” Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) replied <‘Oh Abu Bakr, do not say that; we are two, and Allah is the third’> [related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

One of the miracles of Allah (Glory be to Him) in protecting Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was that He (Glory be to Him) ordered a spider to build her web across the entrance of the cave to cover Prophet Muhammed, and He (Glory be to Him) ordered two pigeons to settle in front of the entrance of the cave. When the disbelievers saw this, they said to each other, “It has a web over the entrance which was built before Muhammed was born, so let’s go” [At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra].

Then Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) employed a man who had much experience about the routes in the desert to be a guide for them on their journey. The man’s name was Abdullah ibn Uraiquit. He followed the religion of Quraish. Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said, “Prophet Muhammed and Abu Bakr trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their two she-camels to the cave of the mountain of Thawr after three nights, in the morning. They then waited until the way was clear. And (when they set out), 'Amir bin Fuhaira and the guide went along with them, the guide leading them along the sea-shore.” [related by Al-Bukhari].

They passed the two tent of Um Mabad Al-Khuza’ah. She was sitting in front of the tents. She had with her some drink and food, and they asked her for dates or meat to buy from her, but she did not have any of that.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) looked at a sheep that was inside the tent, and said, <‘What is that sheep, Oh Um Mabad?’ She answered, ‘

That sheep is weak, so we kept it here, away from the other sheep that went out to pasture.’ Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) asked, ‘Does it have milk?’ She replied, ‘It is too weak to give milk.’

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) asked, ‘Do you allow me to milk it?’

She said, ‘Yes, by my mother and father, if you find any milk!’ Prophet Muhammed told her to bring the sheep, and then touched its udders, saying Allah’s Name and praying, ‘Oh Allah, bless her through her sheep!’ The sheep’s udders filled with milk, becoming totally full, and so Prophet Muhammed asked for a container and he milked the sheep until the container became full. He (peace be upon him) then gave her (Um Mabad) some milk and she drank until she was satisfied, and gave milk to his companions, who drank until they were satisfied, and then gave to the others with him until it was said that everyone drank. They all drank until they were satisfied. Then Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) milked the sheep and filled the container again, and left it for Um Mabad, and then departed.

By the time she had waited for her husband Abu Mabad, the udders had become dry again. When her husband saw the milk, he was surprised. He said, ‘Where did you get this and the sheep has no milk, and there was no milk in the house.’ So she told him about Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and his companions, and what had happened. Therefore, he said, ‘By Allah, it seems that he is the one Quraish are looking for’> [At-Tabakat Al-Kubra].

Quraish had offered a great reward for anyone who killed Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) or brought him to them. Suraqah ibn Malik was able to follow Prophet Muhammed’s and his companions’ footprints in the desert, as he was trained in such matters.

He reached Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and his companions. Abu Bakr saw him (Suraqah) on his horse, and said, “Oh Prophet Muhammed, this horseman has reached us.” So Prophet Muhammed turned around and prayed against him. Consequently, the feet of the horse sank into the sand. Suraqah said, “I heard that you prayed against me, so now pray for me. By Allah, I will not try to capture you (as I wanted to do at first).” So Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) prayed for him, and Suraqah managed to get the horse out of the sand [related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

“When Suraqah was free of the sand, he told Prophet Muhammed the news about Quraish and that they had offered a reward for catching him, and he told them all the plans the people had made concerning them. Then Suraqah asked Prophet Muhammed to write a guarantee of security for him. Therefore, Prophet Muhammed ordered Amr ibn Fuhayrah to write this for him, and so he wrote it on a piece of animal skin” [related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) continued on his journey until he reached Quba (south of Medina).

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) stopped at Qubah

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) arrived at Quba (south of Medinah), the Muslims were eagerly looking for him, men, women and their children, all waiting for him. They had heard he had left Mecca, and every day they were waiting, going out to see if he had arrived and returning when the heat of midday was at its strongest.

One day, they returned after going out to look for him. They had just returned to their homes when a Jew who had climbed up a high place to look for Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him), announced that he saw Prophet Muhammed and his Companion wearing white clothes. The Jew could not stop himself from calling out in a loud voice, “Oh Arabs, there is your elder leader who you were waiting for.”

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) reached Quba on Monday, 8th Rabia Al-Owla, in the 13th year of the call [A Mercy to the Worlds].

The people of Quba went out to greet Prophet Muhammed, as they were happy that he had come to them. They gave him a warm welcome that suited his status as a Prophet. They surrounded him, and tranquility covered Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him).

Allah (Glory be to Him) blest Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and the believers with this blessed immigration, which was, and still is, a light that shone in the history of Islam. Allah’s ability and arrangement of events was clear in this trip, and also Prophet Muhammed’s determination, planning and perseverance. If there was only this blessed event (the trip to Medinah) and the miracles that happened during it, it would have been enough proof that he is a Messenger of Allah.

Building Quba mosque

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) stayed at Kalthoum ibn Al-Hadmi in Quba for four days (Monday to Thursday)

He built the Quba mosque and prayed in it.

It was the first mosque built on righteous foundations. Allah (Glory be to Him) described this mosque, saying, {The Mosque which has been founded on piety from the very first day, is the proper place for you to stand (for Prayer). For there are such people in it as would like to keep themselves pure; and Allah likes those people who like to keep themselves pure} [Surah At-Tawba: 108].

On the fifth day of his stay at Quba, on Friday, Allah ordered Prophet Muhammed to ride his camel, and Abu Bakr walked beside him. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) reached his uncles from his mother’s side (Bani An-Najjar). They came to him, carrying their swords, and surrounded Prophet Muhammed as he went towards Medina. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) prayed Friday prayer at Bani Salim ibn Auf, in the mosque in the middle of the valley. There were 100 men in the prayer [related by Al-Bukhari].

Building Prophet Muhammed’s mosque

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) continued on his journey until he entered Medinah. There was a great celebration when Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) entered Medinah; it was a great day in the history of Medinah and Islam. All the Ansar had gone out, the men, women, children and slaves, to welcome Prophet Muhammed. All the homes and streets resonated with words of praise and glorification.

Whenever Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) passed any of the homes of the Ansars, the owner of the house would take the reins of his camel. Each one of them wanted Prophet Muhammed to stay with him. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) used to say to them, [At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra By Ibn Said].

Prophet Muhammed’s camel continued to move under the command of Allah until he stopped At the present location of Prophet Muhammed’s mosque.

The land belonged to two young boys from Al-Ansar (Sahil and Suhayl, the sons of Amr) from Bani An-Najjar. So Prophet Muhammed brought the land from them for 10 dinars. The boys wanted to give it to Prophet Muhammed as a gift, but Prophet Muhammed refused to take it as a gift.

The land was part of the district of Bani Najjar, who were the uncles of Abu Al-Muttalib through his mother. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, <‘Which of our houses is the nearest?’ Abu Ayyub (may Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘Mine, Oh Prophet Muhammed. This is my home and this is my door.’ Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, ‘Go and prepare a place for us to rest.’ Abu Ayyub said, ‘Welcome. May Allah bless your stay’> [related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) stayed at the noble Companion Khalid ibn Zayd (Abu Ayyub Al-Ansar). And Prophet Muhammed started to build Prophet Muhammed’s mosque straight away; it was the first thing Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) started to carry out after he reached Medinah. This indicates the importance of the mosque in Islam; it is the place where Muslims meet for the five daily prayers, where they gathered with Prophet Muhammed, where consultations were carried out, and a place for groups coming to Medinah to embrace Islam.

For these reasons, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was eager for the building of his mosque to be the first matter he carried out there. In fact, he used to participate in the building of the mosque for the Companions to realize the importance of communal participation and work. He used to carry the bricks (unbaked bricks), saying when carrying them, <‘Oh Allah, the true life is the Next life, so forgive the Ansar and Muhajarin.’>

Prophet Muhammed’s mosque was the centre and the first step in building the Muslim community, as it represented the school where the Muslim mind, and the basics of the Islamic belief, rules and ethics were established. And it represented a small model of the ideal society in which such rituals, meanings and manners are practiced. Consequently, Prophet Muhammed’s mosque is one of the blessed achievements of Prophet Muhammed’s immigration.

Brotherhood between the Muhajarin and Ansar

Another amazing achievement which affected the Muslim society even more and left a deeper impact on Islamic history was the stability of the new Islamic nation. One of the first blessed steps was the formation of a brotherhood between the Muhajareen and Ansar, a brotherhood which ignored any difference in lineage, colour or place of birth, and removed any prejudice of the times of ignorance. In this way, it was the strongest form of support in the building and establishment of the new Muslim society in Medinah.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) established this brotherhood between the Muhajareen and Ansar in the house of Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him). It involved 90 men, half from the Muhajareen and half from the Ansar. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) formed a brotherhood between them, due to which each one had to help his brother, to the extent that the two new brothers could inherit from each other. But this condition was later abrogated with Allah’s saying, {But, according to the Book of Allah, the blood relations have a greater right on one another} [Surah Al-Ahzab: 6].

In fact, this brotherhood was stronger than the natural brotherhood due to blood. Al-Ansar demonstrated a beautiful model and great example in practically demonstrating the meaning of generosity, equality and selflessness. Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “The Ansar said to Prophet Muhammed to divide the palm trees between them and their brothers. Prophet Muhammed replied saying no. The Ansar said, ‘(Alright.) You farm (the land) and we share the produce.’ The Muharijeen answered, ‘We agree” [related by Al-Bukhari].

Abdurrahman ibn Auf (may Allah be pleased with him) told us about the effect of this brotherhood, saying that when they reached Medinah, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) established a brotherhood between him and Saad ibn Ar-Rabee’a (may Allah be pleased with him). Saad said, “I am the richest one among the Ansar. I will give you half of my money, and see which of my wives you like and I will divorce her for you to marry her after her waiting period.” Abdurrahman replied, “I do not need all that. (But) is there a market where I can trade?” Saad answered, “Qaynuqah Market.” And Abdurrahman went there [related by Al-Bukhari].

Treaties with the Jews, and Abdullah ibn Salam embraces Islam

After the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) laid the foundations of the new Islamic society, the Messenger of Allah started to organize the relationship with non-Muslims. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) called the Jews in Medinah, and wrote an agreement between him and them.

One of the points the Messenger of Allah wrote in the treaty was that he gave them total freedom with regards to religious matters and their money, each party in the contract had to help the one who was attacked, and they should advise each other and be righteous, not sinning, and help the oppressed. Moreover, the Jews should pay, along with the believers, for any wars they were involved in, and they should overcome those who attack Yathrib. And it was prohibted for the parties in this agreement to fight in Yathrib [The Prophet’s Biography by Ibn Hesham].

Abdullah ibn Salam (may Allah be pleased with him), their leader and scholar, was quick to respond. He embraced Islam, but most of the Jewish masses did not accept anything but disbelief. When Abdullah ibn Salam heard that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had entered Medinah, he went to him to ask him questions that only a Prophet would know.

When Abdullah ibn Salam saw the Messenger of Allah, he said, “When his face became clear, I realized that it was not the face of a liar.” And when he heard the Messenger of Allah’s reply to his questions, he believed in him at that very time and spot. Then he said to the Messenger of Allah, <‘The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they would tell a lie about me.’ The Jews came and Abdullah entered the house. Then the Messenger of Allah asked, ‘Who is Abdullah ibn Salam?’ They replied, ‘He is one of our scholars and the son of one of our scholars, and one of the best men among us and the son of one of the best men among us.’ The Messenger of Allah then said, ‘What would you say if Abdullah ibn Salam embraced Islam?’ They replied, ‘May Allah protect him from that.’ At that time, Abdullah entered and said, ‘I bear witness that there is no god (worthy of worship) but Allah, and that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah.’ They then said, ‘He is the worst of us and the son of the worst of us,’ and they continued to talk badly about him> [related by Al-Bukhari].

Another narration states Abdullah ibn Salam as saying “Oh Jews, fear Allah. By Allah, for Whom there is no god but Him, you know he is the Messenger of Allah and that he brought the truth.” But they replied, “You have lied” [related by Al-Bukhari].

Permission to fight (the obligation of Jihad)

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had settled in Medinah, and after Allah had given him help and the believers from the Ansar and Muhajareen, Islam became a nation which its enemies used to lay in wait to attack, looking for any opportunity to eliminate them.

At that time, Allah gave the Muslims the permission to fight, after He used to order them to be patient and forgiving. Allah gave them permission to fight at that time, but He did not make it an obligation on them. Allah (Glory be to Him) says, {Permission (to fight) has been granted to those against whom war has been waged because they have been treated unjustly, and Allah is certainly able to help them} [Surah Al-Hajj: 39].

Allah (Glory be to Him) explained that this permission was to remove falsehood and establish the rituals of Allah. Allah (Glory be to Him) says, {These are the people who, if We give them power in the land, will establish Prayer, pay the obligatory alms, enjoin what is right and forbid what is evil, and the final decision of all affairs is in the hands of Allah} [Surah Al-Hajj: 41]. The permission to fight was limited at the beginning to fighting the Quraishi disbelievers. After that, it developed, expanding as the circumstances changed to become an obligation in fighting all disbelievers. When the permission to fight was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) decided to increase his control the main trade route that Quraish used to take to Ash-Sham.

The first year involved attacking Quraishi caravans. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) equipped 8 campaigns, all of which were sent to intercept Quraishi caravans, except one which was a reply to the attack of Kurz ibn Jabir Al-Fihri. These attacks continued from Ramadan in the first year of Hijra (after immigration) until Ramadan in the second year of Hijra [See details of these campaigns and battles in Zaad Al-Ma’ad (Provisions for the Hereafter)].

Saif Al-Bahr campaign…Divine permission to raise the word of truth

The reason it was called Saif Al-Bahr campaign

The campaign is associated with the location on the shore of the Red Sea where a large Quraishi caravan was travelling towards Mecca, and where there was a battle between the Muslims and disbelievers.

Where and when was the campaign of Seif Al-Bahr?

Seif Al-Bahr is on the sea shore near Juhaynah in the Arabian peninsula. The campaign was launched on the 3rd of Ramadan in the first year after Hijra, corresponding to 623 AC.

Reasons for the Seif Al-Bahr campaign

It was the practical response to the divine permission to fight to stop the oppression of the disbelieving enemies, make the word of Allah uppermost through these campaigns, and to ensure the call will be able to spread. It also aimed at restoring the rights of the Muslims that the Quraish oppressively took from them in Mecca, and show strength and power after the stage of weakness. The Qur’anic ayah in which fighting was made permissible is, {Permission (to fight) has been granted to those against whom war has been waged because they have been treated unjustly, and Allah is certainly able to help them} [Surah Al-Hajj: 39].

Who was the leader and the flag-bearer in the Seif Al-Bahr campaign?

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) assigned his uncle Hamzah ibn AbdulMuttalib (may Allah be pleased with him) as the leader of this campaign, and made Abu Murthad Kanaz ibn Hasayn Al-Ghanawi (may Allah be pleased with him) the flag-bearer. It was the first flag in Islam, and the phrase “There is no god but Allah” was written on it.

How many people participated in the Seif Al-Bahr campaign?

hTe Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sent 30 men from the Muhajareen to intercept the Quraishi caravan (of camels and mules carrying food and other goods) coming from Ash-Sham. Abu Jahl was among the caravan, along with a group of 130 men, and it has been said 300 men.

The events of the Seif Al-Bahr campaign

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sent his uncle Hamza with a number of Companions from the Muhajareen. The Ansar did not go out to fight before the major battle of Badr. The Muhajareen stood up to fight during the Seif Al-Bahr campaign, but they did not proceed as they saw Majdi ibn Amr Al-Juhani, who had entered a treaty with both sides, on the battlefield. They agreed to follow his call to respect the treaty, and left. As a result, no fighting occurred.  

When Hamza returned to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and told him what had happened, the Messenger of Allah praised what Majdi had done, saying, , and he gave gifts of clothes to those who came with him (Majdi), as a form of respect to him [The Prophet’s Biography by Al-Halabiyah]. 

During this time, Quraish did not stop trying to ambush the Muslims, and they threatened the leader of the Ansar, Ibn Abu Salul, that if he continued to harbor the Muslims, they would take their women and enter Medinah to kill the men. Ibn Abu Salul would have complied with the wishes of Quraish were it not for the prudence of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) who reminded the Ibn Abu Salul’s followers of the brotherhood between them. Therefore, they turned away from their leader. But the threats of Quraish continued. One example of such oppression is when Umayah ibn Khalif caught the Companion Saad ibn Muadth (may Allah be pleased with him) when he left Medinah to perform Umrah in Mecca.

Then Quraish sent a message to the Muslims, saying, “Do not think that you have escaped us by going to Yathrib. We will come to you, kill you, and destroy the green crops in your city.”

This made the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sure of the Quraishi plots and evil plans. For this reason, he used to stay awake at night, or only sleep if a guard was protecting him. One of his guards was Saad ibn Abi Waqas (may Allah be pleased with him). This was the usual state of the Muslims, according to the books on the Prophet’s biography; they used to sleep with their weapons beside them, for fear of the evil plans of Quraish.

It was a wise move for the Muslims to control the Quraishi trade route from Mecca to Ash-Sham. They chose two techniques to enable this control—as mentioned in The Sealed Nectar. The first was to make treaties of alliance and non-agression with neighbouring tribes, such as Juhaynah, and also treaties with the Jews, and the second step was to send campaigns that took the form of reconnaissance patrols. This was for the disbelievers and Jews in Medinah as well as the Arab Bedouins living nearby to understand that the Muslims were strong, following Allah’s saying, {…whereby you may strike terror into the enemies of Allah and your enemies as well, and others besides them} [Surah Al-Anfal: 60]. And according to Sheikh Muhammed Ghazaly in his book, The Wisdom of Events in the Prophet’s Biography, this was for the hypocrites who haboured hatred of Islam and the Muslims in their hearts, and the highway robbers in the desert who wanted to attack Medinah.

Fighting to make the word of Allah uppermost… and the ethics of fighting

It is unfortunate that the orientalists portrayed these campaigns as a kind of banditry, which is contrary to the truth. This is because the Muslims patiently withstood harm for 14 years at the beginning of the call. This period was a stage of preparing the Muslims before they entered any battle in order for them to be steadfast on the battlefield. Allah says, {Bear with them and say, "Peace to you!" Soon they shall know} [Surah Az-Zukhruf: 89].

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) reminded the Companion Khabbab ibn Al-Arat (may Allah be pleased with him), when he complained about the severity of the torture he suffered from Quraish in Mecca, of the believers before them who patiently withstood the harm that was inflicted on them. A saw was even placed on the head of a man which was then used to cut him into two, but he did not abandon his faith. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) also gave him glad tidings of victory from Allah; a rider would travel among the different Muslim countries in total safety, not fearing anyone but Allah after He had established His slaves there.

Then came the stage when it was permissible to fight, without an obligation to do so and only in self-defense. Therefore the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) started to send campaigns and went out to the battle. The first campaigns left during Ramadan, Shawwal and Dhul Qadah. After these, battles started to be waged in the second year of Hijra. The battles were the battle of Waddan and the battle of Al-Asheerah. After that, fighting became an obligation on the Muslims when they were attacked or were not allowed to spread the call. Allah (Glory be to Him) says, {And fight in the way of Allah with those who fight against you but do not commit aggression, because Allah does not like aggressors} [Surah Al-Baqarah: 190].

The prince of poets, Ahmed Shawki, said:

They say that the Messenger of Allah entered battles…. but Messengers were not sent to kill and shed blood

Ignorance, misguided minds and false argumentative speech... He liberated with the sword after (years of) “conquering” (by persuasion) with the mouth

In reality: the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) issued an ethical covenant of war, better than any international laws and legislation that have been laid down in this respect. Whenever he assigned anyone as a leader of the army, he used to advise him to fear Allah and deal well with the Muslims who were with him. Then he would say, <‘Fight in the Name of Allah, in the path of Allah. Fight those who do not believe in Allah. Fight, but do not steal (from the war booty), do not be treacherous, do not mutilate the dead bodies, and do not kill children. When you meet your disbelieving enemy, call him towards three options. And accept any one of the three which they choose.…> until the end of the hadith. This advice entailed calling the enemy to Islam, their being like the Bedouin Muslims (if they refuse to immigrate after entering Islam) who do not take booty unless they fight along with the Muslims, or paying the jizyah to become protected people under the care of the Islamic state.

Islam did not spread by the sword, as the orientalists claim. In fact, the following ayah (verse) of the Quran is clear, {There is no compulsion and coercion in regard to religion. The right has been made distinct from the wrong} [Surah Al-Baqarah: 256]. The aim of the wars was to liberate man and give him the right to choose the belief that he is satisfied with. The saying of the international intellect, Thomas Carlyle, in his book, The Heroes, confirms this. He stated, “Whoever believed in Muhammed were attacked before they had the means to fight. Moreover they believed because they wanted to obediently follow truth.  The French historian, Gustav Le Bon, also pointed to this fact when he was talking about the spread of Islam in India and China, as none of the Muslim armies waged any battle there.

Islam also made war the last choice to solve disputes, if necessity dictated this. Allah (Glory be to Him)  says, {And if the enemies incline to peace, you should also incline to it and put your trust in Allah} [Surah Al-Anfal: 60], and He also says, {Allah does not forbid you to treat kindly and act equitably towards those who have not fought you in the matter of religion} [Surah Al-Mumtahanah: 8]. This point is also clear from the truces that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) made between the Muslims and their enemies for set periods of time, and the treaties with the tribes, for example, Banu Damurah in the second year of Hijrah. Further proof is how the Messenger of Allah kept his earlier promises even to the disbelievers, such as the promise to Uthman ibn Talha to whom the Messenger of Allah returned the key of the Kaaba, saying to him

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) set aside specific groups of people that should not be attacked during war, due to them being weak. These groups are the monks, the elderly, official messengers and ambassadors, and all those who were not participating in the fighting on the battlefield from among the workers, peasants and others.

The normal habit during the era of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was to forgive the captives and accept ransoms for them. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) never killed any of the captives except the war criminals. And he did not physically torture or mutilate such criminals. He also prohibited people from extracting information from them by force.

What lessons can we learn from Saif Al-Bahr campaign?

The events of the campaign led by Hamzah ibn AbdulMuttalib (may Allah be pleased with him) put fear into the hearts of the Quraishi people. It was a dangerous threat on their leadership and trade, due to the strength of the enthusiasm of the Muslims and their bravely attacking their enemies. Jubayr ibn Mut’im (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Abu Jahl remarked, when he entered Mecca defeated by the campaign, “Oh Quraish, Muhammed has gone to Yathrib, and has started to send campaigns, He wants to harm you, so be wary of following a route that goes near him, as he is like a fierce lion.” When the news of what had happened reached the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), he said,

The campaign of Hamza ibn AbdulMuttalib made clear how the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) obeyed the orders of his Lord (Glory be to Him)  at the time of the call when he (peace be upon him) was ordered to be patient, and also the time of fighting after the Quranic ayah was revealed allowing fighting against the attackers. It also made clear the Messenger of Allah’s vigilance as a leader of an army, sending many campaigns, one after each other, and his great eagerness which affected all the Muslims, and his tendency to accommodate others, even non-Muslims, if it resulted in a benefit for the Islamic nation. He started this by writing treaties with peaceful tribes and non-Muslims living under his jurisdiction.

Moreover, the campaign showed the Messenger of Allah’s wisdom, as he did not use the Ansar in these intial campaigns, since they were busy with their Muslim guests, and to give them time to accept this new situation. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to choose the best and closest Companions for the dangerous circumstances, and not the others. Furthermore, he used to participate himself, with the bravery of a warrior and the wisdom of a Prophet, in the important conflicts, fighting Allah’s enemies.

Saad gave his companions a quiver, holding 20 arrows. Everyone of them wounded a person or animal. That is, when he threw any spear, he threw it sincerely for Allah and to help. Then the two sides parted. The disbelievers thought that the Muslims had become stronger, so the disbelievers were scared and felt lost. [related by Al-Halibiyah??]

According to the reports of Saad, Al-Muqadad ibn Amr??, who is called Ibn Al-Aswad, and Uyeeiah ibn Ghazawan fled from the isbelievers toward the Muslims. They had left Mecca with the disbelievers d in order to reach the Muslims.

Saad said to Ubeedah (may??, “If we follow them, we will wound them, and they would have left terrified.” He said, “Do not follow me on this point??.” So they left for Medinah [[Reported by Ibn Abi Sabarah on Al-Mahajir ibn Masamar].].

Historians differ: were the campaigns of Hamzah and Ubaidah at the same time, or did Ubaidah’s campaign happen after Hamzah’s campaign. Ibn Ash-haq believed that the two campaigns/attacks?? Happened at the same time, although Ubaidah left Medinah a month after Hamzah.

Lessons we can learn from the Rabagh campaign

Faith produces terror in the hearts of the enemy, as happened with the disbelievers of Quraish. P’s wisdom in testing the ablility and determination of his Companions who were close to him, this was reflected in his choice of who would carry the responsibility of the campaign and also who carried the flag. This was usually shared among a number of the most prominent believing fighters, like Saad ibn Waqas in this campaign.

Similarly, P seemed to trust the elderly men like he trusted the youth. Ubaidah ibn Al-Harith was ten years older than P. And a nice strategy of P was that he usually chose as the flag-bearer one who was close to the leader of the campaign. Ubaidah and Mustah ibn Athathah immigrated to Yathrib together. Therefore, P placed them together in the battlefield in this campaign too.