It was called after the place the battle happened on Quraish’s trade route, between Mecca and Medinah.
The expedition happened in the month of Rabi’ah Al-Awwal in the second year of Hijra, corresponding to September 623 A.C. It took place near the mountain of Juhayna, in an area called Buwat, which is near Radwa mountain.
It is known that the early expeditions of the Prophet before the battle of Badr aimed at intercepting Quraish and their caravans, at establishing the Muslims, weakening the disbelievers, obtaining some of what Quraish had taken from the Muslims (Muhajareen), and making the Muslims’ strength clear. The campaigns, expeditions and battles were aimed at places on the trade route between Mecca and Ash-Sham.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) was the leader and Saad ibn Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with him) was the flag-bearer. Umaiyah ibn Khalaf was leading the fleeing caravan of Quraish.
There were two hundred Muslims and one hundred disbelievers.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) left with two hundred Companions to intercept the caravan led by Umaiyah ibn Khalaf Al-Jumahi, which had one hundred men from Quraish and 2500 camels. Saad ibn Muadh was left in Medinah to dispose of affairs there. Books about the Prophet’s biography mention that no one attacked the Prophet when he reached Buwat mountain, so he returned to Medinah. Scouts of Quraish learnt that the Muslims had left to meet them, so the caravan moved quickly and took a different, untrodden track.
There was no fighting. The effect of the fighting force and strength of the Muslims had become clearer.
The importance of good planning, and the eagerness of the Muslims to tire the disbelieving enemy.
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) left on the expedition, he used trustworthy people and those of knowledge to dispose affairs in Medinah and to partake in the expedition. With time, Quraish began to be more careful and take precautions to avoid meeting the Muslims, which indicates their fear of entering conflicts with the Muslims.