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The major battle of Badr, 2 A.H.…you did not throw when you threw, but Allah (is the One Who) threw

The major battle of Badr, 2 A.H.…you did not throw when you threw, but

Why was it called the major battle of Badr?

It was called after the wells of Badr where the Muslims were stationed before the battle. Badr had well-known wells between Mecca and Medinah.

Al-Hubab ibn Al-Munthir related that he advised Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) to station at the wells to use them to trick the disbelievers and to strengthen the Muslims. And his advice was beneficial later [Jurisprudence of the Prophet’s Biography by Al-Ghazaly, 224. Reported by Al-Hakim in Mustradrak].

The date and location of the battle of Badr

The major battle of Badr took place on Friday, 17th of Ramadan in the 2nd year of Hijrah, near the wells of Badr in the south-west of Medinah, north of Mecca [At-Tabarany, 12/237].

The leaders of the army in the major battle of Badr

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) led the army, and the general flag was held by Musab ibn Umair Al-Quraishi. The flag was white.

The army was divided into two battalions: one of the Muhajareen (the Immigrants), whose flag was given to Ali ibn Abu Talib, and another of the Ansar (the Helpers of Medinah), whose flag was given to Saad ibn Muadh.

Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam was placed over the right side of the army, and Al-Miqdad ibn Amr was placed over the left side. They were the only two horsemen in the army. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) placed Qays ibn Abu Sasah over the rear of the army, and the general leadership was in Prophet Muhammed’s hands.

As for the disbelievers, Amr ibn Hisham Al-Mukhzumy (Abu Jahl) was the leader of the Quraishi army and their allies. Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, Umayyah ibn Khalaf and a number of the leaders of disbelief shared the leadership with Abu Jahl [Ibn Hesham, 2/61].

Reasons for the major battle of Badr

The initial reason for the battle was to intercept a caravan belonging to Quraish, but later the situation developed so that the Muslims had to defend themselves from the disbelievers and their enemity. The caravan escaped from Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) on its outward journey from Mecca to Ash-Sham. It was carrying many trade goods (1000 camels, carrying a great wealth amounting to about 50000 dinars, which were guarded by 40 men). Therefore, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, Jurisprudence of the Prophet’s Biography by Al-Albani, 218] (meaning make up for what Quraish took from you in Mecca)  [The Sealed Nectar by Al-Mubarakpuri, 1/184].  

Statistical data on the battle of Badr

The Muslim army in the battle of Badr consisted of just over 300 men (most of them from the Ansar) and some horsemen as well as 70 camels.

As for the disbelievers of Quraish, they numbered 1000 men and 200 horses. That is, the number of disbelievers in the battle of Badr was about three times that of the Muslims [Al-Jama As-Saheeh (The Collection of Authentic Hadith) by Al-Bukhari 4/1456].

Events of the major battle of Badr

The Muslims leave to intercept the caravan

In the month of Jamad Al-Akhir in the second year of Hijrah, the Muslims left, being led by Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him), to intercept a caravan belonging to Quraish. When they reached a place called “Thil Ushairah”, they learnt that the caravan had already passed this location on its way to Ash-Sham. Therefore, they kept watching out for its return.

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) learnt that the caravan was just about to return from Ash-Sham, he prepared a small number of Companions to meet it. The initial aim was to seize the goods of the Quraishi caravan, and not to fight them [At-Tabaqat by Ibn Saad, 2/42].

The Muslims left Medinah in Ramadan. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) left Abu Lubabah Al-Ansari as a leader over Medinah in his absence. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) sent two Companions, Adi ibn Az-Zaghba and Basbas ibn Amr to gather information about the caravan [At-Tabaqat,  ibid.].

There were only two horsemen with the Muslims and 70 camels to carry the men [At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra by Ibn Saad, 2/24].

Ibn Masoud said, “On the day of the battle of Badr, there were 3 of us on each camel. Abu Lubabah and Ali ibn Abu Talib rode a camel with the Prophet Muhammed. They both said to Prophet Muhammed, “We will walk beside you while you ride.” Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, [related by Ahmed, 1/411].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) did not tell the Companions what their destination was when he (peace be upon him) wanted to leave for Badr. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, [related by Muslim, 3/1901].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) sent back a number of people who left with him to fight in Allah’s cause, due to their young age. These included Al-Bara ibn Azib and Abdullah ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with them) [The Prophet’s Authentic Biography by Akram Al-Umari, 2/355].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) also refused help from one of the disbelievers who wanted to leave with his countrymen (to fight) (i.e. he wanted to fight to defend his tribe, and not the religion). Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said to him, Later, the man embraced Islam [related by At-Tirmidhi, 1558].

Abu Sufyan escaped with the caravan

Abu Sufyan heard news that Prophet Muhammed and his Companions had left Medinah in order to intercept and surround the caravan. As a result, he quickly changed his route to take the route next to the coast. He also sent Damdam ibn Amr Al-Ghifary Al-Kanany to Quraish to encourage them to rescue their money, and tell them that Prophet Muhammed and his Companions had left to intercept the caravan [Ibn Hesham, 2/230].

Abu Sufyan checked the droppings of the camels  in the sand to check if Prophet Muhammed’s Companions had passed or not. When he saw that the droppings had date stones and date fibre in it, he said, “By Allah, this is from the food of Yathrib” [Ibn Hesham, ibid.]. That is, he was sure Prophet Muhammed’s Companions had passed.

Mecca prepares to meet the Muslims

When the messenger Abu Sufyan  sent reached Mecca, he shouted out in the middle of the valley while riding his camel and tearing his shirt, saying, “Oh Quraish. Be aware, be aware. Your money with Abu Sufyan, Muhammed and his Companions want to intercept it.”

The people were startled. They said, “Do you not think that Muhammed and his Companions will do the same with us as he did with the caravan of  Ibn Al-Hadramy (a leader of Quraish that was killed by an arrow by At-Tameemy in a previous campaign)? Quraish swore they would reply. They started to mobilize the Arab tribes to leave to meet the Muslims, and all of them answered, except Banu Adi. Moreover, none of the nobles of Quraish itself stayed behind except Abu Lahab, who sent someone who owed him money instead of him.

Suraqa ibn Malik (the chief of Banu Kananah)  went to Quraish to reassure them that the tribes that were hostile to them were very weak and would not be able to harm then from behind. One report states that Iblis went to Quraish in disguise as Suraqah [The History Book of At-Tabarani, 2/138].

Quraish and its allies left, as Allah recounts, {…with a desire to be seen of men, and hindering others from the way of Allah} [Surah Al-Anfal: 47], preparing, with fanatical rage and anger, to attack Prophet Muhammed and his Companions. They quickly followed the route going to Badr. At that time, another message from Abu Sufyan reached them, saying that they could go home as the caravan and its men had escaped [The Sealed Nectar by Al-Mubarakpuri, 137].

When Quraish received this message, they intended to return home. However, Abu Jahl, the tyrant from Quraish, stood up in pride and arrogance and said, “By Allah, we will not return until we have reached Badr and stayed there for three days, slaughtering the cattle, eating food, drinking wine, and listening to the minstrel girls sing for our march, valour and gathering to reach the ears of the Arabs, so they will continue to think we are supreme and hold the upper hand.”

Al-Aknas ibn Shuraiq and Banu Zahrah, who were allies of Quraish and leaders over them on this trip, returned to their homes. They were about 300 men. Banu Hashim also wanted to return, but Abu Jahl’s threats made them ignore the idea of returning. 

The army of Mecca and its allies of 1000 warriors proceeded on their journey towards Badr. They reached a place near Badr, behind a sand dune at Al-Udwat Al-Quswa, on the edge of the valley of Badr [The History of At-Tabary, 2/22].

Concerning this, Allah (Glorified is He) revealed to Prophet Muhammed and his Companions, {And recall when you were encamped at the nearer end of the valley (of Badr) and they were at the farther end, and the caravan below you (along the seaside). Had you made a mutual appointment to meet in encounter, you would have declined. But encounter was brought about so that Allah might accomplish what He had decreed, and that he who was to perish should perish through a clear proof, and who was to survive might survive through a clear proof. Surely Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing} [Surah Al-Anfal: 42].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) consults his Companions about Badr

Due to the sequence of these events, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) consulted his Companions. Some of them suggested fighting the disbelievers, but others saw that there would be no benefit from the fight as Abu Sufyan had escaped with the caravan and therefore there would be no booty that could benefit the Muslims. Concerning this, Allah (Glorified is He) says, {And recall when Allah promised you that one of the two hosts would fall to you, and you wished that the one without arms should fall into your hands. But Allah sought to prove by His words the truth, to be true and to annihilate the unbelievers to the last remnant. That He might prove the truth to be true and the false to be false, however averse the evil-doers might be to it} [Surah Al-Anfal: 7, 8].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) talked with the Muhajareen (the Immigrants) about the matter, and saw that they were very enthusiastic. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and Omar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with them) were the first to speak, expressing this enthusiasm. Then Al-Miqdad ibn Amr said, “O Messenger of Allah, proceed where Allah directs you to (we will be with you)…By Allah, we will not say what Bani Israel said to Moses (peace be upon him), ‘Go you and your Lord and fight; we will stay here.’” Consequently, Prophet Muhammed supplicated Allah for him [related by Al-Bukhari, 3952].

The Ansar (the Helpers of Medinah) were just as enthusiastic, although their treaty with Prophet Muhammed at Al-Aqabah did not commit them to fight in Allah’s cause outside Medinah. Saad ibn Muadh, for example, told Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him), “By Him Who sent you with the truth, if you were to ask us to plunge into the sea, we will do that most readily with you… we are experienced in war and trustworthy in combat. We hope Allah will show you through our hands deeds that will comfort your eyes. Lead us (to fight), with the blessings of Allah” [related by Ahmed, 3/180].

Some of the believers were scared of shedding blood, although they were eager for combat during the period of persecutions in Mecca. Allah (Glorified is He) says about these, {They disputed with you about the truth after it had become evident, as if they were being driven to death with their eyes wide open} [Surah Al-Anfal: 6]. However, the wise aim of Allah was to defeat disbelief in order for the words of Allah to remain on this earth.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said to his Companions when they had prepared themselves for battle, <Proceed, and receive glad tidings, for Allah has promised me one of two [beneficial outcomes]. By Allah, it is as though I am now looking at the enemy lying prostrate.> (The two outcomes were victory or martyrdom) [related by Ahmed, 5/259].

This battle was the practical application of the divine permission for the Muslims to kill the disbelievers in order for the Islamic creed to spread, after the period of patiently unduring the harm they suffered, according to Allah’s saying, {Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you but do not transgress, for Allah does not love transgressors} [Surah Al-Baqarah: 190].

The journey to Badr

After a difficult journey, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and his Companions entered Badr. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) sent Ali ibn Abu Talib, Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam and Saad ibn Al-Waqqas with a group of other Companions to the wells of Badr to bring back information about the army of Quraish to him (peace be upon him).

The Companions found two youths who were collecting water for the disbelieving army. The Companions beat them, and when the two youths became fearful about their lives, they claimed that they came from Abu Sufyan. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) censured his Companions for this, saying, [Jurisprudence of the Prophet’s Biography by Al-Albani, 221, and The Summary of Muslim].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) then learnt from the two youths details of the weapons of the disbelievers’ army. He asked them about their leaders, and learnt that they slaughtered 10 camels every day, Therefore, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) learnt that the noblest men of Quraish had gone out with the army, he (peace be upon him) said to his Comapnaions, [ibid.].

The miracle at the wells of Badr

Quraish chose a strategic space to camp, Al-Udwat Al-Qaswa in the middle of the valley and near the wells. The ground there was rocky, so their feet did not sink into the earth. The Muslims, on the other hand, entered land where the earth was sandy and far from the wells, which restricted their movements and would leave them thirsty.

But Allah wished to change this situation, so He sent heavy rain the night before the battle which caused difficulties for the disbelievers and made them unable to proceed. Therefore, they left the space empty for the Muslims.

When the Muslims positioned themselves at Badr, the disbelievers started to move towards the water basin near the Muslims, to take water from there. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, Hakeem was not killed, and later he embraced Islam and increased in faith [adapted from Imtaa Al-Isma, 1/83].

The night before the major battle of Badr

All night, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) prayed standing towards a tree, supplicating Allah until the morning. When dawn broke, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) led the people in Prayer, and then encouraged them to fight [related by Ahmed ibn Hanbal, 1/117].

Allah told Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) the names and places where the disbelievers in the battle would fall dead. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, [related by Muslim, 3/1404].

The day before the battle, Allah (Glorified is He) revealed, {And recall when Allah brought on you drowsiness, giving you a feeling of peace and security from Him, and He sent down rain upon you from the sky that He might cleanse you through it, take away from you the pollution of Satan, strengthen your hearts and steady your feet through it} [Surah Al-Anfal: 11].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and the Muslim army set up camp near the wells of Badr. Saad ibn Muadh suggested building a trellis for Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) to function as headquarters for the Muslim army and a place providing reasonable protection for the leader from the enemy. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) praised the idea, and he built the trellis on a hill overlooking the battlefield, taking it as a headquarters for him with his friend Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him). It was guarded by a small number of Ansar youth, under the leadership of Saad [Zaad Al-Maad (Provisions for the Hereafter) by Ibn Al-Qayyim, 3/83].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) arranged the army in rows

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) arranged the soldiers in rows in the battle with the disbelievers, which was not a well-known procedure at that time. This was in order to make the enemy feel fear, to organize the Muslims’ forces, and also following Allah’s directions,

{Allah indeed loves those who fight in His Way as though they are a solid wall cemented with molten lead} [Surah As-Saff: 4].

Ibn Khaldoun said about this, “The military strategies in the early days of Islam relied on organized marches, but the Arabs only knew how to attack and run at that time…”

The outbreak of fighting and the first martyr

The two groups confronted each other. On Friday morning, the fighting began,. The weather was hot at that time.

The battle started with the aggression of the disbelievers against the Muslims. Al-Aswad ibn Abdullah Al-Makhzumy stepped forward and approached the Muslims’ water basin. He said, “I made a promise with Allah that I would drink from their basin, or ruin it, or die in the process.” Therefore, Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib met him and cut off his foot. Consequently,  Al-Aswad crawled until he fell into the basin, where he started to destroy it with his other leg while drinking from it. Hamzah followed him and hit him in the basin, killing him.

Then war broke out. The first Muslim to start fighting in the battle was Mahja ibn A’ish, Omar ibn Al-Khattab’s slave.  Amir ibn Al-Hadramy killed him.

The first Ansar to be killed was Harithah ibn Suraqah. Khalid ibn Al-Alim Al-Uqaily killed him [At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra by Ibn Saad, 2/17].

When the disbelievers approached the Muslim army, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) took some dust from the ground and threw it in the faces of the disbelievers. All of the dust fell into their eyes. Allah (Glorified is He) says concerning this, {So the fact is that it was not you, but it was Allah, Who killed them; and it was not you when you threw [sand at them], but it was Allah Who threw it} [Surah Al-Anfal: 17].

Duels with the disbelievers

Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, Shaibah ibn Rabi’ah and Al-Waleed ibn Utbah from the disbelievers came forward for a duel contest. Three young men from the Ansar went out to fight them, so Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) ordered them to return, saying,

Therefore, Ali, Hamzah, and Ubaydah ibn Al-Harith ibn Abdul-Muttalib stood up and walked towards them. Ali (peace be upon him) was known for his white sword.

Utbah said to his son, “Stand up (to fight), Oh Waleed.” So he stood up and Ali killed him.

Then Utbah stood forward, and Hamzah killed him.

Then Shaibah stood up and Ubaydah stood  up to face him. Shaibah hit Ubaydah and cut  off his leg. As a result, Hamzah and Ali went to help Ubaydah. They killed Shaibah and then carried Ubaydah to the camp. After this incident, Allah (Glorified is He) revealed the following ayah (Quranic verse) about Hamzah and Ali, {These two groups (the believers and unbelievers) are in dispute about their Lord. As for those that disbelieve, garments of fire have been cut out for them; boiling water shall be poured down over their heads} [Surah Al-Hajj: 19].

Poems said on the battlefield at Badr

Peoms motivated the enthusiasm on the battlefield during the battle of Badr [The Prophet’s Biography by As-Sallaby, 553].

Concerning this, Hassan ibn Thabit (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

“We did not fear any people, due to Allah’s might, even if they were many and had gathered to attack us.”

“If they prepared a large crowd (to fight) against us, Allah, the Most Kind, is enough for us to stop them.”

Kaab ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

“Your [The disbelievers] horsemen did not help you at Badr, and you had no patience when meeting the army.”

“Do not hasten to leave, Abu Sufyan. Look! you will see the best horses (i.e. Muslim horses) coming from the location of Kada (near Mecca, to enter and liberate it).”

The supplication of the Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him), and the angels entering the battlefield

Supplication is one of the most important means Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) used to motivate the morale and enthusiasm of the soldiers. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) appealed to Allah for Him to support the believers.

When Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) saw that the number of disbelievers was many times greater than the number of Muslims, Prophet Muhammed kept supplicating Allah, imploring Him, saying, He kept praying, calling his Lord while raising his hands to the sky, until his cloak fell from his shoulders. Abu Bakr As-Saddiq (the truthful one) went near him and said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, you have beseeched your Lord. Truly, Allah will fulfill what He has promised you” [related by Muslim, 1763].

At that time, the divine order was revealed. Allah (Glorified is He) says, {And recall when you implored your Lord for help and He responded to you, 'I will indeed reinforce you with a thousand angels, coming host after host’} [Surah Al-Anfal: 9].

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, <Truly, the angels are clear (on the battlefield), sofight valiantly as well. You can see them (the angels) among the rows in the battle with their turbans” [Al-Mughazi (The Campaigns) by Al-Waqidi, 1/76].

Ibn Abbas told us the story about his cousin and a cloud full of the sound of horses neighing. This cloud remained among the disbelievers in the battle. As for his cousin, he was killed in front of Ibn Abbas, although no one touched him [An Nawawi’s Explanation of Muslim, 12/87].

Ibn Abbas said, “The angels used to appear in the form of a well-known man to make the Muslims steadfast.” And then he recited Allah’s saying, {And recall when your Lord inspired the angels, 'I am certainly with you. So make firm the feet of those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. So strike at their necks and strike at every pore and tip’} [Surah Al-Anfal: 12], [Imta Al-Asma, 1/88].

With the participation of the angels, the final result of the battle was in the favour of the Muslims. The extreme bravery of the Companions was manifest in this battle. Abu Jahl (the leader of the disbelievers) was even killed by two youths from the Ansar, competing with each other to strike him with their swords [Al-Mughazi (The book of  battles), 4/1461].

The captives of the battle of Badr

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was wise and merciful in dealing with the captives of the battle of Badr. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) took the advice of his friend Abu Bakr As-Saddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) to take a ransom for the captives of  Badr in order to strengthen the Muslims, take account of the rights of relatives, and give them a chance for Allah (Glorified is He) to guide them to Islam. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) did not follow the advice of Omar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) to kill them as they were the leaders of disbelief.

The ransom for those who had money was 4000 dirhams, and the ransom of the poor was for them to teach the children of the Ansar (Helpers of Medinah) how to write.

Al-Abbas, the Prophet Muhammed’s uncle, had unwillingly left to fight the Muslims at Badr, although he was a Muslim like them at the time (but he hid his faith). And despite this, he was taken as a captive. Omar ibn Al-Khattab wanted to kill him, believing that he was a hypocrite, but Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) did not forget the support he gave the Muslims before the immigration to Medinah. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) had ordered that Al-Abbas pay 20 ounces of gold as a ransom, and then Prophet Muhammed increased the ransom for Al-Abbas and his son. This is proof that Prophet Muhammed did not give any captive special treatment, and did not favour any captives over others.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) stipulated that the captives who did not have the money to ransom themselves should teach 10 of the Muslim children.

However, concerning the leaders of sedition and the war criminals, eg. Uqbah ibn Abu Muait and An-Nadr ibn Al-Harith, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) ordered that they be killed when the Muslims were on their journey back to Medinah [At-Tabaqat, 4/11, reported by As-Salaby, ibid.].

The booty of the battle of Badr

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) divided the booty of the battle of Badr equally between the Companions after he had taken one fifth from the booty. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) also gave a share of the booty to nine Companions who did not attend the battle, including Othman ibn Afan (may Allah be pleased with him), as they had duties to perform in Medinah.

Through this wise action, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) was able to resolve any disputes between the Companions about the distribution of the booty. This is because the legislation about the war booty had not been revealed at the time of the battle. One group of the Companions were busy with the booty, another group were running after the enemy, and a third group were protecting Prophet Muhammed. Each group wanted their right from the spoils of war. Then Allah (Glorified is He) revealed His saying, {They ask you concerning the spoils of war? Tell them, 'The spoils of war belong to Allah and the Messenger. So fear Allah, and set things right between you, and obey Allah and His Messenger if you are true believers’} [Surah Al-Anfal: 1].

Results of the major battle of Badr

The battle ended with an overwhelming defeat for the disbelievers, and a great and empowering victory for the Muslims as a result of their firm faith. Allah provided assistance to the Muslims from His noble Self.

The most prominent and misguided leaders of the disbelievers in Mecca (Abu Jahl, Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, Umayyah ibn Khalif) were killed in this blessed battle, along with a large number other disbelievers from Mecca. A total of 70 of them were killed and 70 were taken as captives.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) ordered that the slain disbelievers should be pulled to the wells of Badr and dropped into them [The Collection of Authentic Hadith by Muslim, 4/2203].

The number of Muslim martyrs was 14 Companions.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) stayed at Badr for three days. On the third day, he went to one of the wells of Badr and started to talk to the slain disbelievers calling by their names and the names of their fathers, saying, <‘Oh so-and-so son of so-and-so, and so-and-so son of so-and-so, would it not have been much better for you if you had obeyed Allah and His Messenger? Behold, we have found that our Lord’s promise has come true; did you (also) find that the promises of your Lord have come true?’ Thereupon, Omar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘O Prophet Muhammed, why are you speaking to bodies that have no souls in them?’ Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) answered, ‘You do not hear better what I say than they do’> [related by An-Nisa’i, 2073].

One of the results of the battle is that Quraish suffered a severe calamity as their nobles had been killed. Therefore, they were determined to take revenge and retaliation. Umair ibn Wahb was sent to assisinate Prophet Muhammed, but Allah willed that he would embrace Islam instead.

Quraish took two Muslim captives, who had been sent out on a campaign to see what Quraish were doing on their return journey to Mecca. They were Habeeb Al-Ansari and Zayd ibn Ad-Dithannah (may Allah be pleased with them). Quraish killed them in retaliation for two of their nobles that had been killed at Badr.

The battle of Badr established the Muslims, made them more confident about their abilities, increased their combat abilities, spread their reputation in the Arabian Peninsula, and more importantly, made them sure that Allah (Glorified is He) would support them.

Great lessons from the battle of Badr

Allah called the battle of Badr the name “the criterion”, as it distinguished between truth and falsehood. Allah (Glorified is He) revealed, {…(Believe) in what We sent down on Our servant on the day of the criterion (when the true was distinguished from the false)} [Surah Al-Anfal: 41].

The title of Badr, that is those Muslims who were present at Badr, was always regarded with great appreciation by Prophet Muhammed’s Companions. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, They were also considered the best Companions [related by Abu Dawud, 2650].

The battle confirmed Allah’s saying, {[They said,] ‘How often has a small party prevailed against a large party, by the leave of Allah.’ Allah is with those who remain steadfast} [Surah Al-Baqarah: 249].

The battle of Badr is an important lesson on taking physical and spiritual means while relying on Allah (Glorified is He).

The battle highlights the reality that victory is from Allah, regardless of the presence of angels. Allah (Glorified is He) says about this, {Allah has reminded you of this only as a glad tiding to you, and so as to let your hearts be at rest. Help can only come from Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise} [Suran Al-Imran: 126].

The battle raised the value of loyalty to Allah, alone. The slogan of the Muslims in the battle was, “(Allah is) One, (Allah is) One”. There was no racism, no tribalism, no looking for revenge. What moved them was belief in the Oneness of Allah. (Abu Bakr As-Siddiq was among the rows of the Muslims, and his son Abdur-Rahman was with the disbelievers. Moreover, Musab ibn Umair was carrying the flag for the Muslims and his brother Abu Azeez ibn Umair was among the rows of the disbelievers. These two Muslims were adamant in asking for a high ransom from their relatives, not to mention fighting them) [Al-Mughazi, 1/19 – 152, reported by As-Salaby, ibid.].

The great characteristics of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) as a military commander were manifest in this battle; joining his Companions in pursuit of the caravan, although he was their leader; concealing the secrets related to the war; increasing the faith of the soldiers; justice in dividing the spoils of war; wisdom in solving disagreements between the soldiers; and mercy in dealing with the captives and taking the situation of each captive into account.